Public and publicly guaranteed multilateral loans include loans and credits from the World Bank, regional development banks, and other multilateral and intergovernmental agencies. Excluded are loans from funds administered by an international organization on behalf of a single donor government; these are classified as loans from governments. Concessional debt is defined as loans with an original grant element of 25 percent or more. The grant element of a loan is the grant equivalent expressed as a percentage of the amount committed. It is used as a measure of the overall cost of borrowing. The grant equivalent of a loan is its commitment (present) value, less the discounted present value of its contractual debt service; conventionally, future service payments are discounted at 10 percent. Net transfers are net flows minus interest payments during the year; negative transfers show net transfers made by the borrower to the creditor during the year. Data are in current U.S. dollars.