Country name 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988
Saudi Arabia -47.4 -45.8 -18.4 1.2 10.2
Botswana -6.8 -18.4 -36.8 -45.6 -40.5
Bhutan 3.1 5.5 2.8 -5.6 -5.7
Congo, Dem. Rep. 6.3 5.6 7.4 6.7 9.9
Oman 7.2 13.6 22.4 19.2 22.2
Rwanda 8.5 9.5 10.3 12.5 14.5
Bahrain 10.0 4.2 7.5 20.2 1.6
Burkina Faso 11.4 11.2 11.1 10.2 10.4
Chad 13.4 14.3 22.0 22.2 16.1
Indonesia 13.5 16.2 21.0 24.4 28.7
Gabon 15.2 21.0 32.3 40.8 31.7
Ecuador 16.9 20.3 18.3 18.0 18.6
Burundi 18.8 18.0 17.6 17.7 19.7
Samoa 18.8 21.8 18.1 15.8 6.0
Ghana 18.9 23.5 24.0 28.2 20.6
Central African Republic 18.9 14.6 14.6 14.0 12.9
Qatar 19.4 24.8 40.6 41.9 37.3
Mali 19.4 21.5 24.9 23.5 17.4
Swaziland 19.6 18.5 18.5 15.4 14.5
Solomon Islands 20.2 27.0 25.8 23.3 23.1
Comoros 20.4 14.2 13.7 14.7 16.8
Niger 20.5 19.8 20.3 17.8 17.7
Vanuatu 20.6 18.7 26.1 19.6 21.8
Paraguay 20.9 18.1 17.3 15.7 16.0
Bangladesh 20.9 21.6 20.9 20.7 21.1
Congo, Rep. 21.0 22.7 34.0 28.8 30.9
Papua New Guinea 22.1 25.2 28.7 26.7 28.2
United Arab Emirates 22.3 26.6 32.2 28.8 31.0
New Zealand 22.7 30.8 32.0 34.1 77.6
Cameroon 23.6 22.2 24.5 20.5 26.5
Togo 23.6 19.8 27.5 27.1 26.0
Nepal 24.3 27.1 27.3 26.5 26.9
Benin 28.6 32.1 30.4 29.1 29.8
Bolivia 29.0 9.9 5.7 13.8 15.4
Ethiopia 29.3 27.1 28.6 29.8 32.0
Cabo Verde 30.3 32.7 32.2 33.3 32.9
Peru 30.4 20.6 18.3 22.1 31.7
Lesotho 30.5 32.3 35.5 39.9 43.7
Sudan 31.5 31.3 32.1 31.1 23.2
Fiji 32.4 33.4 32.3 36.9 31.0
Uganda 33.2 38.2 20.0
Costa Rica 33.8 30.8 30.1 29.3 26.9
Seychelles 34.4 37.0 39.9 40.5 46.2
Malawi 34.7 34.5 36.3 32.1 22.3
Sri Lanka 37.0 41.7 41.2 43.2 48.6
Guatemala 37.8 39.4 30.6 30.7 30.2
Madagascar 39.0 38.9 37.0 32.1 25.6
Philippines 39.4 35.0 28.0 21.7 19.7
Turkey 39.6 39.9 29.8 29.7 23.4
Argentina 41.7 32.6 32.9 47.6 42.7
Australia 42.1 49.5 53.0 54.6 56.8
Malta 42.3 43.0 50.8 58.7 62.4
Mauritania 42.5 38.4 35.9 35.1 34.7
Sierra Leone 42.9 59.2 48.1 23.5 22.4
Iceland 43.0 42.6 36.5 40.1 45.8
Senegal 43.1 41.6 38.1 36.8 40.1
Bahamas, The 44.0 42.3 44.0 49.4 52.9
India 44.8 46.7 49.5 50.1 49.8
Korea, Rep. 44.9 47.3 46.3 45.6 42.4
Cote d'Ivoire 45.2 42.1 42.9 45.7 47.7
Colombia 45.7 42.5 30.8 29.6
Honduras 46.6 46.4 47.6 50.2 49.1
Trinidad and Tobago 46.7 50.5 59.2 66.8 69.2
Grenada 47.3 50.1 56.0 55.9 57.8
Nigeria 47.4 43.4 48.7 36.0 34.3
Kenya 48.1 48.8 50.9 50.7 48.4
Belize 48.7 49.5 41.2 37.6 30.6
Dominica 49.2 50.4 44.5 36.3 34.7
Mexico 49.9 49.9 64.5 58.7 38.5
Zimbabwe 49.9 65.5 67.0 74.2 64.1
Pakistan 50.0 52.1 55.5 57.8 53.1
Morocco 50.5 50.1 46.6 49.3 46.1
Brazil 50.8 50.9 165.5
Maldives 51.0 54.8 49.1 37.8 28.1
United Kingdom 51.1 53.3 57.9 92.2 100.6
Dominican Republic 51.4 38.4 42.1 39.6 34.7
Barbados 51.6 49.3 47.8 50.9 55.0
Kuwait 51.9 51.5 73.9 75.7 93.4
Norway 52.8 53.6 59.8 69.6 68.4
Venezuela, RB 53.2 52.2 56.9 51.5 54.8
El Salvador 54.0 61.3 32.5 30.7 30.9
Finland 54.3 58.6 60.7 66.1 75.4
Macao SAR, China 55.1 68.8 64.3 57.2 62.2
Antigua and Barbuda 55.2 55.3 53.1 60.5 59.7
Liberia 55.3 63.4 69.5 69.6 81.3
St. Lucia 55.6 62.7 57.7 59.5 62.2
Mauritius 55.7 58.9 54.6 47.4 47.1
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 56.7 57.3 48.7 50.2 47.9
Denmark 58.7 61.5 66.4 60.4 61.6
Ireland 59.7 57.4 56.9 54.3 53.5
Myanmar 59.9 63.7 78.9 67.7 69.0
China 62.6 65.8 77.3 80.5 76.7
Belgium 63.1 63.9 66.5 67.0 68.4
Gambia, The 67.4 60.0 28.3 13.2 13.5
Cyprus 68.0 71.6 71.7 75.7 107.1
Panama 71.1 69.3 68.7 67.6 66.1
Tunisia 71.4 76.6 82.0 61.2 59.2
Zambia 72.1 59.7 45.0 32.7 66.4
Romania 72.2 81.5 83.1 91.5 94.9
Greece 72.3 75.0 74.9 91.0 89.1
St. Kitts and Nevis 75.3 86.7 81.2 59.2 69.7
Jamaica 76.9 66.7 66.2 54.4 55.8
Singapore 79.2 73.8 74.6 73.7 65.5
Suriname 82.0 104.4 130.0 145.4 150.8
Thailand 82.5 84.5 85.3 86.2 84.1
Algeria 82.7 85.0 93.3 95.2 99.4
Jordan 83.1 88.5 81.8 95.8 112.2
Italy 85.2 86.6 85.6 84.8 84.2
Uruguay 85.4 79.3 64.8 49.3 53.4
Luxembourg 86.2 84.6 88.1 91.2 94.5
Canada 87.4 87.8 89.9 90.1 92.3
South Africa 90.4 96.8 94.9 93.5 94.4
Hungary 96.5 96.6 103.3 102.0 91.6
Germany 96.5 97.7 95.8 96.6 96.9
Syrian Arab Republic 97.0 106.9 97.3 83.5 68.2
Portugal 97.9 91.3 83.7 79.4 74.8
Spain 98.2 100.8 98.5 101.1 104.0
Austria 98.9 101.0 104.3 110.7 114.5
Malaysia 101.7 116.5 138.8 133.7 129.5
Sweden 103.3 102.0 112.7 101.2 110.8
Egypt, Arab Rep. 107.0 109.1 110.9 97.0 97.5
Chile 107.4 114.7 108.4 97.1 83.1
Nicaragua 111.0 91.2 62.0 55.2 77.7
France 119.9 86.8 89.2 92.0 94.6
United States 124.1 134.0 143.1 145.2 144.1
Switzerland 142.8 145.3 146.0 153.6 158.7
Netherlands 143.0 149.4 82.8 85.6 104.5
Japan 214.6 216.9 226.8 240.3 248.0
Israel 232.1 175.2 130.8 123.3 121.4
Guyana 253.3 289.5 304.1 251.3 334.0
American Samoa
St. Martin (French part)
Mozambique
Azerbaijan
Haiti
Tajikistan
Namibia
Kyrgyz Republic
Curacao
Faeroe Islands
Moldova
Armenia
New Caledonia
Monaco
Cuba
Mongolia
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Slovak Republic
Croatia
Djibouti 49.5 47.6 46.2
Libya
Montenegro
Northern Mariana Islands
Aruba
Greenland
Iran, Islamic Rep. 71.5 72.4 76.4
Andorra
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Hong Kong SAR, China
Angola
Guinea-Bissau 41.4 29.8 24.6
Turks and Caicos Islands
Palau
Eritrea
Iraq
French Polynesia
Cayman Islands
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Albania
Slovenia
Vietnam
Somalia
West Bank and Gaza
South Sudan
Isle of Man
Estonia
Czech Republic
Guam
Puerto Rico
Kosovo
Brunei Darussalam
Equatorial Guinea 47.8 54.6 44.0 39.2
Afghanistan
Macedonia, FYR
Marshall Islands
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Tanzania 23.7
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Timor-Leste
San Marino
Tonga
Sao Tome and Principe
Kiribati
Bermuda
Turkmenistan
Lao PDR
Tuvalu
Serbia
Ukraine
Belarus
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation
Guinea
Uzbekistan
Cambodia
Georgia
Bulgaria
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Poland 58.1 54.9 49.7 41.7
Yemen, Rep.
Latvia
Lebanon 69.9

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