Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Botswana -36.8 -45.6 -40.5 -40.0 -45.6
Saudi Arabia -18.4 1.2 10.2 15.9 12.9
Bhutan 2.8 -5.6 -5.7 -0.6 -1.0
Bolivia 5.7 13.8 15.4 19.0 23.0
Congo, Dem. Rep. 7.4 6.7 9.9 11.2 25.3
Bahrain 7.5 20.2 1.6 -5.8 -1.0
Rwanda 10.3 12.5 14.5 16.4 17.1
Burkina Faso 11.1 10.2 10.4 12.2 12.2
Comoros 13.7 14.7 16.8 19.3 20.6
Central African Republic 14.6 14.0 12.9 13.0 13.2
Samoa 16.1 14.1 5.4 -0.8 0.0
Paraguay 17.3 15.7 16.0 14.3 13.8
Burundi 17.6 17.7 19.7 17.0 16.8
Ecuador 18.3 18.0 18.6 13.3 10.5
Swaziland 18.5 15.4 14.5 11.2 10.4
Uganda 20.0
Bangladesh 20.2 20.0 20.4 22.7 21.6
Niger 20.3 17.8 17.7 16.4 16.2
Indonesia 21.0 24.4 28.7 35.2 46.7
Chad 22.0 22.2 16.1 12.5 11.5
Peru 22.1 26.2 26.1 19.6 20.7
Oman 22.4 19.2 22.2 19.1 15.0
Mali 22.5 21.7 15.6 15.7 12.3
Ghana 24.0 28.2 20.6 21.2 17.5
Cameroon 24.5 20.5 26.5 30.0 30.9
Solomon Islands 25.8 23.3 23.1 25.3 23.8
Vanuatu 26.1 19.6 21.8 26.8 30.8
Nepal 27.3 26.5 26.9 28.3 28.0
Togo 27.5 27.1 26.0 19.2 21.3
Philippines 28.0 21.7 19.7 20.7 23.2
Ethiopia 28.1 29.2 31.4 33.5 39.2
Gambia, The 28.3 13.2 13.5 10.0 3.4
Papua New Guinea 28.7 26.7 28.2 33.6 35.7
Turkey 29.8 29.7 23.4 21.0 19.5
Costa Rica 30.1 29.3 26.9 24.0 23.7
Benin 30.4 29.1 29.8 21.1 21.1
Guatemala 30.6 30.7 30.2 29.1 25.9
New Zealand 31.7 33.8 76.9 77.7 77.4
Sudan 32.1 31.1 23.2 24.6 21.7
United Arab Emirates 32.2 28.8 31.0 29.2 23.2
Cabo Verde 32.2 33.3 32.9 36.5 41.6
Gabon 32.3 40.8 31.7 28.2 20.0
Fiji 32.3 36.9 31.0 35.9 38.5
El Salvador 32.5 30.7 30.9 34.1 24.1
Argentina 32.9 47.6 42.7 80.1 32.4
Congo, Rep. 34.0 28.8 30.9 30.3 29.1
Kenya 34.9 37.5 35.4 32.7 35.8
Lesotho 35.5 39.9 43.7 43.7 33.5
Iceland 35.7 39.2 44.7 51.6 48.2
Seychelles 35.8 35.2 40.4 43.5 42.3
Mauritania 35.9 35.1 34.7 39.5 47.0
Malawi 36.3 32.1 22.3 21.8 19.7
Madagascar 37.0 32.1 25.6 22.7 22.2
Senegal 38.1 36.8 40.1 36.7 33.6
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 38.8 40.7 39.3 44.2 40.7
Barbados 40.6 43.3 46.7 46.6 51.4
Qatar 40.6 41.9 37.3 43.5 33.6
Belize 41.2 37.6 30.6 28.0 26.7
Sri Lanka 41.2 43.2 48.6 40.8 38.0
Guinea-Bissau 41.4 29.8 24.6 29.3 77.5
Dominican Republic 42.1 39.6 34.7 36.5 31.5
Morocco 42.3 44.7 41.6 43.2 38.5
Cote d'Ivoire 42.9 45.7 47.7 44.2 44.5
Bahamas, The 44.0 49.4 52.9 54.3 58.5
Dominica 44.5 36.3 34.7 46.0 59.6
Zambia 45.0 32.7 66.4 73.2 67.8
Korea, Rep. 46.3 45.6 42.4 46.2 48.1
Honduras 47.6 50.2 49.1 49.0 40.9
Sierra Leone 48.1 23.5 22.4 21.1 36.3
Nigeria 48.7 36.0 34.3 20.1 21.9
Maldives 49.1 37.8 28.1 33.4 33.0
India 49.5 50.1 49.8 51.4 50.0
Malta 50.8 58.7 62.4 70.8 82.3
Antigua and Barbuda 53.1 60.5 59.7 61.6 62.6
Australia 53.2 54.8 57.1 70.5 70.4
Mauritius 54.6 47.4 47.1 45.7 44.7
Equatorial Guinea 54.6 44.0 39.2 43.0 36.8
United Kingdom 54.9 86.7 94.0 106.4 109.5
Sweden 55.2 58.2 63.7 68.1 62.3
Pakistan 55.5 57.8 53.1 51.3 50.9
Ireland 55.8 53.3 52.5 51.0 52.9
Grenada 56.0 55.9 57.8 60.2 58.8
Venezuela, RB 56.9 51.5 54.8 37.4 38.6
St. Lucia 57.7 59.5 62.2 68.9 58.8
Norway 58.7 68.3 67.2 67.1 65.0
Trinidad and Tobago 59.2 66.8 69.2 67.3 58.5
Finland 59.7 65.0 74.0 76.1 80.3
St. Kitts and Nevis 61.0 45.5 53.2 61.4 59.5
Nicaragua 62.0 55.2 77.7 46.8 162.8
Macao SAR, China 64.3 57.2 62.2 65.6 64.1
Mexico 64.5 58.7 38.5 39.7 37.3
Uruguay 64.8 49.3 53.4 51.8 46.7
Denmark 65.3 59.4 60.5 63.5 60.9
Belgium 65.3 65.9 67.2 70.4 69.8
Jamaica 66.2 54.4 55.8 54.6 45.8
Zimbabwe 67.0 74.2 64.1 88.8 41.7
Iran, Islamic Rep. 67.9 69.1 72.2 70.5 59.9
Panama 68.7 67.6 66.1 65.4 52.7
Liberia 69.5 69.6 81.3 123.9
Greece 71.4 86.8 85.0 88.3 85.2
Cyprus 71.7 75.7 106.9 103.8 113.0
Kuwait 73.9 75.7 93.4 78.2
Singapore 74.6 73.7 65.5 60.1 58.6
China 77.0 80.2 76.4 79.0 88.9
Netherlands 77.7 80.3 98.1 97.4 97.0
Myanmar 78.9 67.7 69.0 37.6 39.6
Jordan 81.9 95.9 112.2 114.7 106.3
Tunisia 82.0 61.2 59.2 66.4 62.5
Portugal 82.6 78.3 73.8 66.2 63.0
Italy 82.7 82.0 81.3 83.7 83.7
Romania 83.1 91.5 94.9 101.3 79.7
Luxembourg 83.6 86.5 89.6 90.2 100.4
Thailand 85.3 86.2 84.1 86.7 94.1
France 87.3 90.0 92.6 94.8 99.5
Canada 89.9 90.1 92.3 96.7 100.9
Germany 93.1 93.9 94.1 92.9 98.9
Algeria 93.3 95.2 99.4 90.6 78.4
South Africa 94.9 93.5 94.4 93.6 97.8
Spain 95.8 98.3 101.2 101.8 102.0
Syrian Arab Republic 97.3 83.5 68.2 64.5 56.6
Austria 103.5 109.8 113.6 115.6 118.2
Chile 108.4 97.1 83.1 73.9 70.2
Egypt, Arab Rep. 110.9 97.0 97.5 98.6 99.8
Suriname 130.0 145.4 150.8 151.0 109.2
Israel 130.8 123.3 121.4 114.2 106.2
Switzerland 138.4 145.6 150.4 158.1 158.8
Malaysia 141.4 133.7 129.5 136.2 72.7
United States 143.1 145.2 144.1 147.4 145.2
Japan 226.8 240.3 248.0 254.3 255.3
Guyana 304.1 251.3 334.0 299.1 265.9
Haiti
Mozambique 16.9 15.6
Kiribati
Libya 103.5
Namibia 16.3
Guam
Greenland
Bulgaria
Timor-Leste
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Cayman Islands
Hungary
New Caledonia
Montenegro
Mongolia
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Georgia
Slovak Republic
French Polynesia
Guinea
Isle of Man
Northern Mariana Islands
Bermuda
Faroe Islands
Marshall Islands
Estonia
Tanzania 23.7 26.4 34.6
Eritrea
Tonga 30.2 30.0
Palau
Moldova
Monaco
Serbia
Djibouti 47.6 46.2 46.0 40.6
Cambodia
Czech Republic
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Curacao
Slovenia
Cuba
Somalia
Brunei Darussalam
South Sudan
Poland 18.8
Albania
Brazil 165.5 212.9 87.6
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
St. Martin (French part)
Croatia
Belarus
West Bank and Gaza
Azerbaijan
Turkmenistan
Hong Kong SAR, China 151.9
Tuvalu
Tajikistan
Ukraine
Macedonia, FYR
Iraq
Aruba
Sao Tome and Principe
Armenia
Lithuania
Angola
Colombia 30.8 29.6 36.4
Turks and Caicos Islands
Kazakhstan
Andorra
San Marino
American Samoa
Liechtenstein
Russian Federation
Puerto Rico
Uzbekistan
Vietnam
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao PDR 6.3 5.0
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Latvia
Yemen, Rep. 51.8
Afghanistan
Lebanon 69.9 109.5 132.6

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