Country name 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Botswana -42.6 -35.8 -33.8 -73.7 -79.1
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. -31.0 -44.9 -44.0 -47.0
Lesotho -4.2 -9.0 -14.3 -19.1 -20.9
Turkmenistan -16.7 1.1 -19.1 8.4 25.2
Congo, Dem. Rep. 3.4 1.7
Guinea-Bissau 9.4 3.1 3.1 7.3 10.8
Gambia, The 2.8 3.7 3.7 5.0 5.4
Uganda 9.2 4.4 5.2 6.6 7.5
Suriname 13.0 4.7 12.7 20.1 36.0
Sudan 7.2 5.0 7.2 5.4 5.3
Cambodia 5.4 5.3 6.2 6.9 7.2
Mozambique 5.8 5.4 1.9 3.1 3.1
Burkina Faso 7.3 5.6 6.5 13.1 12.3
Mongolia 14.8 6.4 12.6 7.3 14.5
Guinea 6.6 7.7 8.5 7.4 6.5
Georgia 8.1 8.1 12.9 15.6
Niger 11.2 8.7 8.8 10.2 9.2
Armenia 15.3 9.1 9.1 8.0 10.7
Kazakhstan 29.1 9.5 7.9 6.5 8.7
Bhutan 13.8 9.9 4.9 14.6 2.6
Chad 12.0 9.9 11.1 10.1 9.1
Lao PDR 10.6 9.9 7.6 15.1 15.4
Samoa 6.2 10.2 10.1 9.0 9.8
Benin 10.9 10.9 10.1 7.0 6.5
Mali 12.2 11.1 10.3 12.3 14.9
Swaziland 16.9 11.2 12.2 12.4 10.5
Estonia 10.1 11.2 18.8 28.6 30.1
Central African Republic 14.0 11.4 11.8 10.8 11.6
Azerbaijan 44.3 12.5 13.0 13.0 12.9
Peru 11.1 12.9 13.9 20.5 25.8
Rwanda 28.5 13.0 10.2 12.5 12.7
Latvia 22.6 13.2 11.6 14.2 17.0
Lithuania 19.2 13.7 11.1 12.6 13.3
Malawi 30.0 14.6 10.5 10.0 8.9
Belarus 39.8 15.0 15.1 17.0 35.2
Ukraine 24.2 15.5 14.8 17.1 24.6
Burundi 18.9 16.0 21.1 19.9 22.3
Costa Rica 19.2 16.0 25.2 29.2 32.7
Comoros 18.7 16.9 15.0 15.6 14.7
Congo, Rep. 16.9 17.3 15.3 16.7 22.0
Madagascar 25.8 17.3 14.2 13.2 15.5
Cameroon 19.9 17.5 15.6 15.1 15.2
Gabon 16.9 18.3 15.0 16.1 23.8
Ghana 18.4 18.9 18.4 25.5 24.6
Vietnam 20.1 20.1 21.2 22.0
Dominican Republic 21.0 20.1 22.1 23.8 25.5
Ecuador 35.0 20.8 21.0 23.7 24.5
Senegal 24.6 22.1 22.2 21.4 20.9
Tanzania 27.1 23.0 15.7 12.4 11.0
Argentina 21.9 23.0 23.3 25.1 26.8
Romania 17.8 23.6 28.8 18.7 21.7
Nigeria 46.4 23.6 13.3 12.6 18.2
Moldova 19.7 23.7 23.4 26.0 34.0
Solomon Islands 25.5 24.7 24.0 24.3 22.7
Haiti 27.0 25.3 25.0 28.3 25.9
Russian Federation 31.7 25.5 27.8 29.5 44.9
Oman 25.4 25.6 26.4 33.3 47.5
Kyrgyz Republic 25.7 25.1 18.2 20.0
Macedonia, FYR 78.8 25.7 29.1 29.4 18.7
Togo 21.7 26.0 25.0 22.9 23.7
Honduras 30.8 26.2 25.5 28.7 29.6
Bangladesh 21.2 26.7 28.7 29.9 30.3
Paraguay 29.7 26.8 26.1 33.2 26.9
Turkey 25.6 27.8 34.1 34.6 27.5
Cote d'Ivoire 29.7 28.0 25.7 25.2 24.0
Bahrain 26.7 28.4 25.3 30.4 37.9
United Arab Emirates 29.9 28.9 28.9 31.3 36.8
Papua New Guinea 31.9 29.2 28.1 33.4 35.3
Equatorial Guinea 36.7 29.4 19.4 10.3 10.4
Guatemala 28.7 30.0 30.4 26.2 24.8
Poland 34.1 30.1 31.5 32.4 33.7
Saudi Arabia 30.7 30.6 27.1 30.6 41.1
Jamaica 25.9 30.7 37.5 44.9 45.8
Ethiopia 33.8 30.7 32.6 36.6 42.1
Tonga 27.3 31.4 31.2 37.1 38.2
Uruguay 30.6 32.4 31.6 29.2 45.8
Myanmar 32.4 32.5 33.7 30.7 28.1
Slovenia 31.9 32.7 32.1 31.9 36.0
Vanuatu 33.3 33.7 36.2 33.1 35.8
Nepal 29.5 34.0 33.7 34.2 38.3
Maldives 37.2 34.9 30.1 29.0 32.4
Venezuela, RB 35.8 37.0 19.9 17.5 18.2
Colombia 34.7 37.2 38.8 40.8 42.5
Aruba 38.0 39.4 43.4 42.3 41.2
Albania 50.3 39.9 41.2 58.1 56.2
Iran, Islamic Rep. 45.6 40.0 40.9 39.5 46.1
El Salvador 38.0 40.5 42.3 44.4 41.6
Sri Lanka 32.6 40.9 38.7 36.8 36.6
Mexico 39.2 41.3 31.3 35.2 32.7
Croatia 49.5 41.6 38.2 38.8 41.9
Yemen, Rep. 53.0 41.9 25.5 22.1 30.5
India 46.0 42.9 44.3 44.8 45.2
Belize 40.0 43.7 42.0 47.6 51.6
Algeria 47.2 45.0 38.3 38.6 41.4
Fiji 46.8 45.8 44.2 39.3 34.2
Korea, Rep. 47.6 46.4 49.5 54.7 61.5
Slovak Republic 55.0 46.5 53.8 65.3 61.4
Syrian Arab Republic 48.7 48.2 38.9 37.1 33.8
Bolivia 52.8 48.7 50.9 57.0 65.4
Namibia 43.4 49.3 49.2 44.3 43.5
Eritrea 50.1 77.3 73.3 111.5
Pakistan 51.6 51.0 54.4 52.1 51.5
Djibouti 44.7 51.5 55.7 52.9 49.8
Indonesia 50.3 51.8 54.0 59.6 59.9
Zimbabwe 43.8 52.3 49.0 63.1 58.2
Iceland 55.0 52.5 53.1 70.5 65.0
Kenya 51.2 52.7 39.8 41.4 40.5
Denmark 54.1 53.5 55.4 55.9 61.4
Trinidad and Tobago 48.0 53.8 51.0 57.6 56.1
Barbados 55.3 54.5 55.2 58.6 58.8
Chile 55.5 55.1 58.4 72.2 73.4
Philippines 48.0 55.7 67.9 78.5 63.3
Brazil 86.4 56.1 57.1 59.4 66.8
Norway 57.5 56.9 61.4 65.7 79.3
Angola 57.9 4.8 10.0 17.7
Singapore 55.6 59.1 63.5 69.4 85.1
Morocco 52.1 59.2 55.3 82.5 73.6
Cabo Verde 53.0 59.4 57.7 61.6 58.5
Qatar 66.9 61.2 59.3 53.7 69.4
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 58.7 62.5 65.9 69.2 66.1
Zambia 52.7 63.9 58.8 45.1 65.7
Sierra Leone 90.0 64.8 52.2 60.1 51.1
Finland 70.5 65.4 61.6 55.0 55.6
Mauritius 64.0 66.1 62.3 70.8 75.6
St. Lucia 65.1 66.5 74.4 75.2 72.2
Grenada 67.6 66.7 73.2 84.4 86.7
Panama 62.0 67.3 65.8 66.6 78.3
Czech Republic 67.8 68.3 64.3 64.4 57.2
Bulgaria 103.4 69.0 121.0 21.5 15.2
Antigua and Barbuda 59.3 69.1 72.8 81.4 83.9
Tunisia 71.1 71.2 65.2 61.9 62.2
Macao SAR, China 73.9 71.2 72.6 77.0 70.7
Dominica 68.9 72.7 70.5 73.0 69.7
Bahamas, The 72.0 74.8 76.4 61.5 63.9
Egypt, Arab Rep. 75.2 75.3 76.1 76.1 83.7
Israel 84.5 76.1 77.2 74.4 75.7
Ireland 51.2 77.0 79.0 87.5 91.8
Seychelles 70.6 79.6 87.3 86.9 99.2
Australia 77.4 80.3 83.3 83.3 87.9
Hungary 91.3 80.8 71.3 64.5 62.0
Portugal 78.3 80.9 85.8 87.7 93.7
Jordan 83.0 82.8 78.7 75.8 79.6
Lebanon 75.5 82.9 98.9 116.4 134.7
Luxembourg 76.7 85.5 79.2 84.2
Greece 89.6 86.1 82.0 79.0 76.3
China 89.4 87.7 93.3 100.7 113.1
Kuwait 89.5 88.8 75.8 87.8 106.9
New Zealand 87.3 90.2 92.1 100.4 106.0
Nicaragua 108.2 91.1 71.1 73.8 75.0
Italy 97.9 92.7 90.6 88.7 89.5
St. Kitts and Nevis 87.2 98.0 103.5 97.2 106.2
Malta 100.3 99.6 112.6 118.4 124.9
Spain 100.7 100.2 100.3 102.3 105.6
France 99.5 100.7 100.9 101.1
Libya 107.2 108.0 90.4 65.5 74.1
Netherlands 106.8 111.4 117.0 123.6
Canada 112.3 111.4 115.9 117.8 116.0
Sweden 121.2 111.7 110.0 110.0 111.5
United Kingdom 112.2 117.2 120.8 120.1 118.0
Germany 119.5 124.2 131.9 137.3 143.4
Austria 122.9 124.5 126.1 130.9
Malaysia 112.2 126.7 142.4 163.4 162.1
South Africa 135.5 139.6 139.6 137.9 139.1
Thailand 130.7 141.3 146.4 177.6 176.7
Hong Kong SAR, China 139.4 142.0 151.8 162.1 144.6
Cyprus 142.1 142.1 154.8 163.9 168.1
Belgium 147.6 146.9 149.1 143.6
United States 155.9 165.7 171.0 179.4 190.0
Guyana 173.4 166.3 130.2 114.5 116.6
Switzerland 171.3 174.0 172.4 172.7 168.0
Japan 276.9 283.4 288.5 272.5 294.0
Sao Tome and Principe
Somalia
Kiribati
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
South Sudan
Tuvalu
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Puerto Rico
Isle of Man
Liberia 247.5
Andorra
Cuba
Northern Mariana Islands
Cayman Islands
St. Martin (French part)
Bosnia and Herzegovina 62.3 59.3
Kosovo
West Bank and Gaza
Mauritania
French Polynesia
Guam
Faeroe Islands
Greenland
Curacao
Montenegro
Turks and Caicos Islands
Liechtenstein
Palau
Brunei Darussalam
San Marino
New Caledonia
Monaco
Tajikistan 22.1
Uzbekistan
Serbia 25.9 31.4
Bermuda
Afghanistan
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Timor-Leste
Marshall Islands
Iraq
American Samoa

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