Country name 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Botswana -35.8 -33.8 -73.7 -79.1 -63.4
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. -31.0 -44.9 -44.0 -47.0 -39.8
Lesotho -9.0 -14.3 -19.1 -20.9 -1.1
Turkmenistan 1.1 -19.1 8.4 25.2 26.2
Congo, Dem. Rep. 1.7
Guinea-Bissau 3.1 3.1 7.3 10.8 13.7
Gambia, The 3.7 3.7 5.0 5.4 6.9
Uganda 4.4 5.2 6.6 7.5 8.0
Suriname 4.7 12.7 20.1 36.0 28.6
Sudan 5.0 7.2 5.4 5.3 5.6
Cambodia 5.3 6.2 6.9 7.2 6.6
Mozambique 5.4 1.9 3.1 3.1 6.4
Burkina Faso 5.6 6.5 13.1 12.3 11.5
Mongolia 6.4 12.6 7.3 14.5 11.1
Guinea 7.7 8.5 7.4 6.5
Georgia 8.1 8.1 12.9 15.6 19.5
Niger 8.7 8.8 10.2 9.2 9.4
Armenia 9.1 9.1 8.0 10.7 10.7
Samoa 9.1 9.0 8.0 8.7 14.2
Kazakhstan 9.5 7.9 6.5 8.7 10.1
Bhutan 9.9 4.9 14.6 2.6 -1.3
Chad 9.9 11.1 10.1 9.1 10.7
Lao PDR 9.9 7.6 15.1 15.4 9.3
Benin 10.9 10.1 7.0 6.5 6.5
Mali 11.1 10.3 12.3 14.9 17.0
Swaziland 11.2 12.2 12.4 10.5 11.1
Estonia 11.2 18.7 28.6 30.0 31.0
Central African Republic 11.4 11.8 10.8 11.6 12.3
Latvia 11.7 10.8 12.5 14.8 15.5
Azerbaijan 12.5 13.0 13.0 12.9 10.6
Peru 12.7 13.6 20.3 25.5 29.1
Rwanda 13.0 10.2 12.5 12.7 14.7
Malawi 14.6 10.5 10.0 8.9 10.7
Belarus 15.0 15.1 17.0 35.2 19.9
Ukraine 15.5 14.8 17.1 24.6 25.2
Burundi 16.0 21.1 19.9 22.3 26.2
Costa Rica 16.0 25.2 29.2 32.7 28.9
Comoros 16.9 15.0 15.6 14.7 15.0
Congo, Rep. 17.3 15.3 16.7 22.0 19.0
Madagascar 17.3 14.2 13.2 15.5 15.0
Cameroon 17.5 15.6 15.1 15.2 15.6
Gabon 18.3 15.0 16.1 23.8 21.0
Ghana 18.9 18.4 25.5 24.6 32.5
Vietnam 20.1 20.1 21.2 22.0 28.9
Dominican Republic 20.1 22.1 23.8 25.5 29.3
Ecuador 20.8 21.0 23.7 24.5 30.2
Senegal 22.1 22.2 21.4 20.9 21.3
Tanzania 23.0 15.7 12.4 11.0 11.6
Romania 23.6 28.8 18.7 21.7 17.8
Nigeria 23.6 13.3 12.6 18.2 19.1
Moldova 23.7 23.4 26.0 34.0 28.7
Solomon Islands 24.7 24.0 24.3 22.7 22.0
Haiti 25.3 25.0 28.3 25.9 28.2
Russian Federation 25.5 27.8 29.5 44.9 33.3
Oman 25.6 26.4 33.3 47.5 42.5
Kyrgyz Republic 25.7 25.1 18.2 20.0 14.8
Macedonia, FYR 25.7 29.1 29.4 18.7 19.6
Togo 26.0 25.0 22.9 23.7 21.3
Honduras 26.2 25.5 28.7 29.6 28.1
Bangladesh 26.7 25.1 26.3 26.7 28.3
Paraguay 26.8 26.1 33.2 26.9 26.5
Turkey 27.8 34.1 34.6 27.5 36.8
Argentina 27.9 28.2 30.4 32.5 35.5
Cote d'Ivoire 28.0 25.7 25.2 24.3 23.5
Bahrain 28.4 25.3 30.4 37.9 43.5
United Arab Emirates 28.9 28.9 31.3 36.8 35.9
Papua New Guinea 29.2 28.1 33.4 35.3 31.7
Equatorial Guinea 29.4 19.4 10.3 10.4 8.0
Poland 30.0 31.4 32.4 33.6 36.3
Guatemala 30.0 30.4 26.2 24.8 25.3
Ethiopia 30.1 32.0 35.9 41.3 47.9
Saudi Arabia 30.6 27.1 30.6 41.1 41.1
Jamaica 30.7 37.5 44.9 45.8 47.9
Tonga 31.4 31.2 37.1 38.2 34.7
Slovenia 32.2 31.6 31.4 35.4 38.3
Uruguay 32.4 31.6 29.2 45.8 50.3
Myanmar 32.5 33.7 30.7 28.1 26.2
Vanuatu 33.7 36.2 33.1 35.8 38.7
Nepal 34.0 33.7 34.2 38.3 38.7
Maldives 34.9 30.1 29.0 32.4 32.1
Venezuela, RB 37.0 19.9 17.5 18.2 17.6
Colombia 37.2 38.8 40.8 42.5 41.4
Aruba 39.4 43.4 42.3 41.2 44.6
Albania 39.9 41.2 58.1 56.2 49.8
Iran, Islamic Rep. 40.0 40.9 39.5 46.1 42.9
El Salvador 40.5 42.3 44.4 41.6 44.5
Sri Lanka 40.9 38.7 36.8 36.6 39.2
Croatia 41.0 37.7 38.3 41.4 39.6
Mexico 41.3 31.3 35.2 32.7 30.1
Yemen, Rep. 41.9 25.5 22.1 30.5 20.8
India 42.9 44.3 44.8 45.2 47.5
Belize 43.7 42.0 47.6 51.6 51.0
Algeria 45.0 38.3 38.6 41.4 45.8
Slovak Republic 45.7 52.8 63.8 60.3 57.1
Fiji 45.8 44.2 39.3 34.2 29.7
Korea, Rep. 46.4 49.5 54.7 61.5 66.1
Syrian Arab Republic 48.2 38.9 37.1 33.8 31.2
Bolivia 48.7 50.9 57.0 65.4 66.3
Namibia 49.3 49.2 44.3 43.5 43.2
Eritrea 50.1 77.3 73.3 111.5 147.8
Pakistan 51.0 54.4 52.1 51.5 49.1
Iceland 51.1 51.7 68.7 63.5 72.2
Djibouti 51.5 55.7 52.9 49.8 33.1
Indonesia 51.8 54.0 59.6 59.9 62.1
Zimbabwe 52.3 49.0 63.1 58.2 37.3
Morocco 52.5 49.0 73.9 73.6 74.9
Denmark 52.6 54.5 54.9 60.3 56.2
Kenya 52.7 39.8 41.4 40.5 41.0
Trinidad and Tobago 53.8 51.0 57.6 56.1 53.1
Barbados 54.5 55.2 58.6 58.8 59.2
Brazil 54.9 56.2 58.4 65.0 69.1
Chile 55.1 58.4 72.2 73.4 77.5
Philippines 55.7 67.9 78.5 63.3 58.9
Norway 55.7 60.1 64.4 77.7 72.2
Angola 57.9 4.8 10.0 17.7 7.2
Zambia 58.4 53.5 41.0 60.2 55.2
Singapore 59.1 63.5 69.4 85.1 82.4
Cabo Verde 59.4 57.7 61.6 58.5 51.6
Qatar 61.2 59.3 53.7 69.4 66.9
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 62.5 65.9 69.2 66.1 71.0
Finland 63.7 59.8 53.4 53.9
Sierra Leone 64.8 52.2 60.1 51.1 50.1
Mauritius 66.1 62.3 70.8 75.6 75.2
Czech Republic 66.3 62.4 62.2 55.1 50.8
St. Lucia 66.5 74.4 75.2 72.2 75.4
Grenada 66.7 73.2 84.4 86.7 84.0
Panama 67.3 65.8 66.6 78.3 88.9
Bulgaria 69.0 106.4 19.3 13.6 14.5
Antigua and Barbuda 69.1 72.8 81.4 83.9 89.3
Tunisia 71.2 65.2 61.9 62.2 63.6
Macao SAR, China 71.2 72.6 77.0 70.7 76.3
Dominica 72.7 70.5 73.0 69.7 69.9
Israel 73.5 74.4 71.2 72.3 75.9
Bahamas, The 74.8 76.4 61.5 63.9 63.3
Egypt, Arab Rep. 75.3 76.1 76.1 83.7 88.3
Ireland 75.7 77.6 86.1 90.1
Seychelles 79.6 86.7 86.9 99.2 109.8
Hungary 79.8 70.5 63.8 61.3 52.2
Portugal 79.8 84.8 86.6 92.9
Australia 80.3 83.3 83.4 87.9 91.3
Luxembourg 81.4 75.3 80.1
Greece 81.8 77.3 74.3 71.2 78.7
Jordan 82.8 78.7 75.8 79.6 79.4
Lebanon 82.9 98.9 116.4 134.7 150.8
China 87.2 92.8 100.1 112.5 118.7
Kuwait 88.8 75.8 87.8 106.9 92.4
New Zealand 89.5 91.4 99.5 104.9 108.5
Italy 89.6 87.6 85.8 86.5
Nicaragua 91.1 71.1 73.8 75.0 74.6
Spain 97.5 97.3 99.5 102.7
St. Kitts and Nevis 98.0 103.5 97.2 106.2 113.8
France 98.4 98.3 98.4
Malta 99.6 112.6 118.4 124.9 129.4
Netherlands 104.9 110.4 116.6
Sweden 107.3 105.5 105.3 106.4 102.0
Libya 108.0 90.4 65.5 74.1 58.2
Canada 111.4 115.9 117.8 116.0 114.6
United Kingdom 112.0 115.0 115.6 114.0 117.4
Germany 120.9 128.5 133.7 139.5
Austria 123.5 125.0 128.2
Malaysia 126.7 142.4 163.4 162.1 150.1
Cyprus 132.6 144.8 153.6 157.3 220.6
South Africa 135.7 135.9 134.5 135.6 149.4
Thailand 141.3 146.4 177.6 176.7 155.8
Hong Kong SAR, China 142.0 151.8 162.1 144.6 135.0
Belgium 144.6 146.4 141.2
Switzerland 164.9 163.2 164.1 158.8 165.3
United States 165.7 171.0 179.4 190.0 201.3
Guyana 166.3 130.2 114.5 116.6 103.0
Japan 283.4 288.5 272.5 294.0 305.5
Faeroe Islands
Iraq
French Polynesia
Somalia
South Sudan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Greenland
Tajikistan 22.1 20.8
Montenegro
Palau
Marshall Islands
Brunei Darussalam 41.0
Puerto Rico
San Marino
St. Martin (French part)
Sao Tome and Principe
Kiribati
Cayman Islands
Guam
Timor-Leste
Curacao
Monaco
Cuba
Liechtenstein
Bermuda
Bosnia and Herzegovina 62.3 59.3 48.2
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Tuvalu
Lithuania
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Uzbekistan
New Caledonia
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Isle of Man
Taiwan, China
Northern Mariana Islands
Mauritania
Andorra
Serbia 22.9 27.8 36.2
West Bank and Gaza 4.5 4.9
Afghanistan
American Samoa
Liberia 247.5 182.1

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