Country name 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Botswana -35.8 -33.8 -73.7 -79.1 -63.4
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. -31.0 -44.9 -44.0 -47.0 -39.8
Lesotho -9.0 -14.3 -19.1 -20.9 -1.1
Mozambique 5.4 1.9 3.1 3.1 6.4
Gambia, The 3.7 3.7 5.0 5.4 6.9
Sudan 5.0 7.2 5.4 5.3 5.6
Kazakhstan 9.5 7.9 6.5 8.7 10.1
Uganda 4.4 5.2 6.6 7.5 8.0
Cambodia 5.3 6.2 6.9 7.2 6.6
Benin 10.9 10.1 7.0 6.5 6.5
Mongolia 6.4 12.6 7.3 14.5 11.1
Guinea-Bissau 3.1 3.1 7.3 10.8 13.7
Guinea 7.7 8.5 7.4 6.5
Armenia 9.1 9.1 8.0 10.7 10.7
Samoa 9.1 9.0 8.0 8.7 14.2
Turkmenistan 1.1 -19.1 8.4 25.2 26.2
Malawi 14.6 10.5 10.0 8.9 10.7
Angola 57.9 4.8 10.0 17.7 7.2
Chad 9.9 11.1 10.1 9.1 10.7
Niger 8.7 8.8 10.2 9.2 9.4
Equatorial Guinea 29.4 19.4 10.3 10.4 8.0
Central African Republic 11.4 11.8 10.8 11.6 12.3
Mali 11.1 10.3 12.3 14.9 17.0
Swaziland 11.2 12.2 12.4 10.5 11.1
Tanzania 23.0 15.7 12.4 11.0 11.6
Rwanda 13.0 10.2 12.5 12.7 14.7
Nigeria 23.6 13.3 12.6 18.2 19.1
Lithuania 13.7 11.1 12.6 13.3 16.2
Georgia 8.1 8.1 12.9 15.6 19.5
Azerbaijan 12.5 13.0 13.0 12.9 10.6
Burkina Faso 5.6 6.5 13.1 12.3 11.5
Madagascar 17.3 14.2 13.2 15.5 15.0
Latvia 13.2 11.6 14.2 17.0 17.8
Bhutan 9.9 4.9 14.6 2.6 -1.3
Lao PDR 9.9 7.6 15.1 15.4 9.3
Cameroon 17.5 15.6 15.1 15.2 15.6
Comoros 16.9 15.0 15.6 14.7 15.0
Gabon 18.3 15.0 16.1 23.8 21.0
Congo, Rep. 17.3 15.3 16.7 22.0 19.0
Belarus 15.0 15.1 17.0 35.2 19.9
Ukraine 15.5 14.8 17.1 24.6 25.2
Venezuela, RB 37.0 19.9 17.5 18.2 17.6
Kyrgyz Republic 25.7 25.1 18.2 20.0 14.8
Romania 23.6 28.8 18.7 21.7 17.8
Bulgaria 69.0 106.4 19.3 13.6 14.5
Burundi 16.0 21.1 19.9 22.3 26.2
Suriname 4.7 12.7 20.1 36.0 28.6
Peru 12.7 13.6 20.3 25.5 29.1
Vietnam 20.1 20.1 21.2 22.0 28.9
Senegal 22.1 22.2 21.4 20.9 21.3
Yemen, Rep. 41.9 25.5 22.1 30.5 20.8
Togo 26.0 25.0 22.9 23.7 21.3
Serbia 22.9 27.8 36.2
Ecuador 20.8 21.0 23.7 24.5 30.2
Dominican Republic 20.1 22.1 23.8 25.5 29.3
Solomon Islands 24.7 24.0 24.3 22.7 22.0
Argentina 23.0 23.3 25.1 26.8 29.3
Cote d'Ivoire 28.0 25.7 25.2 24.0 23.2
Ghana 18.9 18.4 25.5 24.6 32.5
Moldova 23.7 23.4 26.0 34.0 28.7
Guatemala 30.0 30.4 26.2 24.8 25.3
Haiti 25.3 25.0 28.3 25.9 28.2
Estonia 11.2 18.7 28.6 30.0 31.0
Honduras 26.2 25.5 28.7 29.6 28.1
Maldives 34.9 30.1 29.0 32.4 32.1
Uruguay 32.4 31.6 29.2 45.8 50.3
Costa Rica 16.0 25.2 29.2 32.7 28.9
Macedonia, FYR 25.7 29.1 29.4 18.7 19.6
Russian Federation 25.5 27.8 29.5 44.9 33.3
Bangladesh 26.7 28.7 29.9 30.3 31.8
Bahrain 28.4 25.3 30.4 37.9 43.5
Saudi Arabia 30.6 27.1 30.6 41.1 41.1
Myanmar 32.5 33.7 30.7 28.1 26.2
United Arab Emirates 28.9 28.9 31.3 36.8 35.9
Slovenia 32.2 31.6 31.4 35.4 38.3
Poland 30.0 31.4 32.4 33.6 36.3
Vanuatu 33.7 36.2 33.1 35.8 38.7
Paraguay 26.8 26.1 33.2 26.9 26.5
Oman 25.6 26.4 33.3 47.5 42.5
Papua New Guinea 29.2 28.1 33.4 35.3 31.7
Nepal 34.0 33.7 34.2 38.3 38.7
Turkey 27.8 34.1 34.6 27.5 36.8
Mexico 41.3 31.3 35.2 32.7 30.1
Ethiopia 30.1 32.0 35.9 41.3 47.9
Sri Lanka 40.9 38.7 36.8 36.6 39.2
Tonga 31.4 31.2 37.1 38.2 34.7
Syrian Arab Republic 48.2 38.9 37.1 33.8 31.2
Croatia 41.0 37.7 38.3 41.4 39.6
Algeria 45.0 38.3 38.6 41.4 45.8
Fiji 45.8 44.2 39.3 34.2 29.7
Iran, Islamic Rep. 40.0 40.9 39.5 46.1 42.9
Colombia 37.2 38.8 40.8 42.5 41.4
Zambia 58.4 53.5 41.0 60.2 55.2
Kenya 52.7 39.8 41.4 40.5 41.0
Aruba 39.4 43.4 42.3 41.2 44.6
Namibia 49.3 49.2 44.3 43.5 43.2
El Salvador 40.5 42.3 44.4 41.6 44.5
India 42.9 44.3 44.8 45.2 47.5
Jamaica 30.7 37.5 44.9 45.8 47.9
Belize 43.7 42.0 47.6 51.6 51.0
Pakistan 51.0 54.4 52.1 51.5 49.1
Djibouti 51.5 55.7 52.9 49.8 33.1
Finland 63.7 59.8 53.4 53.9 55.5
Qatar 61.2 59.3 53.7 69.4 66.9
Korea, Rep. 46.4 49.5 54.7 61.5 66.1
Denmark 52.6 54.5 54.9 60.3 56.2
Bolivia 48.7 50.9 57.0 65.4 66.3
Trinidad and Tobago 53.8 51.0 57.6 56.1 53.1
Albania 39.9 41.2 58.1 56.2 49.8
Barbados 54.5 55.2 58.6 58.8 59.2
Brazil 56.1 57.1 59.4 66.8 70.9
Indonesia 51.8 54.0 59.6 59.9 62.1
Sierra Leone 64.8 52.2 60.1 51.1 50.1
Bahamas, The 74.8 76.4 61.5 63.9 63.3
Cabo Verde 59.4 57.7 61.6 58.5 51.6
Tunisia 71.2 65.2 61.9 62.2 63.6
Czech Republic 66.3 62.4 62.2 55.1 50.8
Bosnia and Herzegovina 62.3 59.3 48.2
Zimbabwe 52.3 49.0 63.1 58.2 37.3
Hungary 79.8 70.5 63.8 61.3 52.2
Slovak Republic 45.7 52.8 63.8 60.3 57.1
Libya 108.0 90.4 65.5 74.1 68.6
Norway 56.9 61.4 65.7 79.3 73.7
Panama 67.3 65.8 66.6 78.3 88.9
Iceland 51.1 51.7 68.7 63.5 72.2
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 62.5 65.9 69.2 66.1 71.0
Singapore 59.1 63.5 69.4 85.1 82.4
Mauritius 66.1 62.3 70.8 75.6 75.2
Chile 55.1 58.4 72.2 73.4 77.5
Dominica 72.7 70.5 73.0 69.7 69.9
Eritrea 50.1 77.3 73.3 111.5 147.8
Nicaragua 91.1 71.1 73.8 75.0 74.6
Morocco 52.5 49.0 73.9 73.6 74.9
Greece 81.8 77.3 74.3 71.2 78.7
Israel 76.1 77.2 74.4 75.7 79.6
St. Lucia 66.5 74.4 75.2 72.2 75.4
Jordan 82.8 78.7 75.8 79.6 79.4
Egypt, Arab Rep. 75.3 76.1 76.1 83.7 88.3
Macao SAR, China 71.2 72.6 77.0 70.7 76.3
Philippines 55.7 67.9 78.5 63.3 58.9
Luxembourg 81.4 75.3 80.1
Antigua and Barbuda 69.1 72.8 81.4 83.9 89.3
Australia 80.3 83.3 83.4 87.9 91.3
Grenada 66.7 73.2 84.4 86.7 84.0
Italy 89.6 87.6 85.8 86.5 90.3
Ireland 75.7 77.6 86.1 90.1 101.2
Portugal 79.8 84.8 86.6 92.9 109.5
Seychelles 79.6 86.7 86.9 99.2 109.8
Kuwait 88.8 75.8 87.8 106.9 92.4
St. Kitts and Nevis 98.0 103.5 97.2 106.2 113.8
France 98.4 98.3 98.4 100.9
Spain 97.5 97.3 99.5 102.7 109.1
New Zealand 90.2 92.1 100.4 106.0 109.6
China 87.7 93.3 100.7 113.1 119.3
Sweden 107.3 105.5 105.3 106.4 102.0
Guyana 166.3 130.2 114.5 116.6 103.0
United Kingdom 112.0 115.0 115.6 114.0 117.4
Lebanon 82.9 98.9 116.4 134.7 150.8
Netherlands 104.9 110.4 116.6 133.0
Canada 111.4 115.9 117.8 116.0 114.6
Malta 99.6 112.6 118.4 124.9 129.4
Austria 123.5 125.0 128.2 121.1
Germany 120.9 128.5 133.7 139.5 141.5
South Africa 139.6 139.6 137.9 139.1 153.3
Belgium 144.6 146.4 141.2 134.2
Hong Kong SAR, China 142.0 151.8 162.1 144.6 135.0
Malaysia 126.7 142.4 163.4 162.1 150.1
Cyprus 142.1 154.8 163.9 168.1 235.6
Switzerland 164.9 163.2 164.1 158.8 165.3
Thailand 141.3 146.4 177.6 176.7 155.8
United States 165.7 171.0 179.4 190.0 201.3
Japan 283.4 288.5 272.5 294.0 305.5
Palau
Faeroe Islands
South Sudan
Guam
Monaco
Congo, Dem. Rep. 1.7
Liechtenstein
Sao Tome and Principe
Liberia 247.5 182.1
New Caledonia
Afghanistan
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
St. Martin (French part)
Somalia
Kosovo
Brunei Darussalam 41.0
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Mauritania
Kiribati
Greenland
Turks and Caicos Islands
French Polynesia
Curacao
Northern Mariana Islands
Isle of Man
Tuvalu
Andorra
Cuba
Puerto Rico
Cayman Islands
Tajikistan 22.1 20.8
Montenegro
Uzbekistan
West Bank and Gaza
Bermuda
Marshall Islands
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Timor-Leste
San Marino
Iraq
American Samoa

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