Country name 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Botswana -33.8 -73.7 -79.1 -63.4 -65.7
Lesotho -14.3 -19.1 -20.9 -1.1 3.6
Mozambique 1.7 2.8 2.8 5.5 9.3
Gambia, The 3.7 5.0 5.4 6.9 7.4
Sudan 7.2 5.4 5.3 5.6 8.9
Kazakhstan 7.9 6.5 8.7 10.1 12.3
Uganda 5.2 6.6 7.5 8.0 12.2
Cambodia 6.2 6.9 7.2 6.6 6.4
Benin 10.1 7.0 6.5 6.0 7.4
Mongolia 12.6 7.3 14.5 11.1 9.0
Guinea-Bissau 3.1 7.3 10.8 13.7 10.6
Guinea 8.5 7.4 6.5 8.9
Armenia 9.1 8.0 10.7 10.7 11.5
Samoa 9.0 8.0 8.7 14.2 18.3
Malawi 10.5 10.0 8.9 10.7 12.5
Angola 4.8 10.0 17.7 7.2 -14.8
Chad 11.1 10.1 9.1 10.7 12.3
Niger 8.8 10.2 9.2 9.4 9.2
Equatorial Guinea 19.4 10.3 10.4 8.0 4.7
Central African Republic 11.8 10.8 11.6 12.3 12.0
Mali 9.7 11.3 13.3 14.9 13.1
Swaziland 12.2 12.4 10.5 11.1 11.1
Tanzania 15.7 12.4 11.0 11.6 10.7
Rwanda 10.2 12.5 12.7 14.7 13.1
Nigeria 13.3 12.6 18.2 19.1 10.0
Lithuania 11.2 12.6 13.4 16.2 15.0
Georgia 8.1 12.9 15.6 19.5 21.5
Azerbaijan 13.0 13.0 12.9 10.6 9.6
Burkina Faso 6.5 13.1 12.3 11.5 14.3
Madagascar 14.2 13.2 15.5 15.0 15.2
Latvia 10.9 13.3 15.7 17.2 23.0
Bhutan 4.9 14.6 2.6 -1.3 2.9
Lao PDR 7.6 15.1 15.4 9.3 9.0
Cameroon 15.6 15.1 15.2 15.6 14.4
Comoros 15.0 15.6 14.7 15.0 14.1
Gabon 15.0 16.1 23.8 21.0 12.5
Congo, Rep. 15.3 16.7 22.0 19.0 8.7
Belarus 15.1 17.0 35.2 19.9 19.2
Ukraine 14.8 17.1 24.6 25.2 23.8
Venezuela, RB 19.9 17.5 18.2 17.6 14.9
Kyrgyz Republic 25.1 18.2 20.0 14.8 12.2
Romania 28.8 18.7 21.8 17.5 13.8
Bulgaria 106.4 19.3 13.6 14.7 17.1
Burundi 21.1 19.9 22.3 26.2 21.6
Suriname 12.7 20.1 36.0 28.6 33.7
Peru 13.6 20.3 25.5 29.1 27.2
Vietnam 20.1 21.2 22.0 28.9 32.6
Senegal 22.2 21.4 20.9 21.3 23.5
Yemen, Rep. 25.5 22.1 30.5 20.8 5.3
Togo 25.0 22.9 23.7 21.3 22.4
Serbia 22.9 27.8 36.2 58.3
Ecuador 21.0 23.7 24.5 30.2 30.6
Dominican Republic 22.1 23.8 25.5 29.3 31.9
Solomon Islands 24.0 24.3 22.7 22.0 26.5
Cote d'Ivoire 25.7 25.2 24.3 23.5 22.4
Ghana 18.4 25.5 24.6 32.5 39.3
Moldova 23.4 26.0 34.0 28.7 25.2
Guatemala 30.4 26.2 24.8 25.3 25.9
Bangladesh 25.1 26.3 26.7 28.3 30.2
Haiti 25.0 28.3 25.9 28.2 34.3
Estonia 18.7 28.5 30.0 30.9 34.5
Honduras 25.5 28.7 29.6 28.1 23.5
Maldives 30.1 29.0 32.4 32.1 34.8
Uruguay 31.6 29.2 45.8 50.3 50.2
Costa Rica 25.2 29.2 32.7 28.9 32.4
Macedonia, FYR 29.1 29.4 18.7 19.6 13.7
Russian Federation 27.8 29.5 44.9 33.3 24.9
Bahrain 25.3 30.4 37.9 43.5 33.9
Argentina 28.2 30.4 32.5 35.5 34.5
Saudi Arabia 27.1 30.6 41.1 41.1 34.7
Myanmar 33.7 30.7 28.1 26.2 31.2
United Arab Emirates 28.9 31.3 36.8 35.9 28.9
Slovenia 31.6 31.4 35.4 38.3 42.0
Poland 31.4 32.4 33.6 36.3 34.3
Vanuatu 36.2 33.1 35.8 38.7 35.6
Paraguay 26.1 33.2 26.9 26.5 27.0
Oman 26.4 33.3 47.5 42.5 37.6
Papua New Guinea 28.1 33.4 35.3 31.7 28.2
Nepal 33.7 34.2 38.3 38.7 40.8
Turkey 34.1 34.6 27.5 36.8 37.9
Mexico 31.3 35.2 32.7 30.1 29.0
Ethiopia 32.0 35.9 41.3 47.9 48.6
Iran, Islamic Rep. 37.6 36.5 42.9 39.4
Sri Lanka 38.7 36.8 36.6 39.2 43.7
Tonga 31.2 37.1 38.2 34.7 38.8
Kenya 34.3 37.1 36.6 37.7 35.7
Syrian Arab Republic 38.9 37.1 33.8 31.2 25.5
Croatia 37.7 38.3 41.4 39.6 40.0
Algeria 38.3 38.6 41.4 45.8 28.3
Fiji 44.2 39.3 34.2 29.7 37.9
Colombia 38.8 40.8 42.5 41.4 30.4
Zambia 53.5 41.0 60.2 55.2 64.0
Aruba 43.4 42.3 41.2 44.6 44.1
Namibia 49.2 44.3 43.5 43.2 42.7
El Salvador 42.3 44.4 41.6 44.5 52.8
India 44.3 44.8 45.2 47.5 51.2
Jamaica 37.5 44.9 45.8 47.9 46.5
Sweden 43.1 45.0 47.0 43.5 46.3
Belize 42.0 47.6 51.6 51.0 43.5
Pakistan 54.4 52.1 51.5 49.1 41.6
Djibouti 55.7 52.9 49.8 33.1 36.1
Finland 59.8 53.4 53.9
Qatar 59.3 53.7 69.4 66.9 40.1
Albania 37.5 54.0 56.6 50.1 49.0
Korea, Rep. 49.5 54.7 61.5 66.1 70.9
Denmark 54.5 54.9 60.3 56.2 141.2
Bolivia 50.9 57.0 65.4 66.3 62.0
Trinidad and Tobago 51.0 57.6 56.1 53.1 45.2
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 56.0 58.3 56.2 60.3 64.2
Barbados 55.2 58.6 58.8 59.2 58.2
Brazil 56.4 58.6 65.2 69.4 70.7
Indonesia 54.0 59.6 59.9 62.1 60.7
Sierra Leone 52.2 60.1 51.1 50.1 54.4
Bahamas, The 76.4 61.5 63.9 63.3 67.3
Cabo Verde 57.7 61.6 58.5 51.6 64.7
Tunisia 65.2 61.9 62.2 63.6 66.4
Czech Republic 62.4 62.2 55.1 50.8 45.6
Bosnia and Herzegovina 62.3 59.3 48.2 37.4
Chile 58.4 62.8 66.4 70.0 69.9
Zimbabwe 49.0 63.1 58.2 37.3 52.2
Hungary 70.4 63.7 61.2 52.1 54.4
Slovak Republic 52.8 63.8 60.2 57.1 55.8
Norway 60.1 64.4 77.7 72.2 67.0
Libya 90.4 65.5 74.1 58.2 50.7
Panama 65.8 66.6 78.3 88.9 94.3
Iceland 51.9 68.9 63.7 72.4 95.7
Singapore 63.5 69.4 85.1 82.4 76.7
Israel 73.9 70.5 71.7 75.3 72.2
Mauritius 62.3 70.8 75.6 75.2 70.8
Dominica 70.5 73.0 69.7 69.9 61.2
Eritrea 77.3 73.3 111.5 147.8 150.5
Nicaragua 71.1 73.8 75.0 74.6 72.2
Morocco 49.0 73.9 73.6 74.9 81.1
Greece 77.6 74.3 71.5 78.9 86.8
St. Kitts and Nevis 79.7 74.8 83.6 89.0 98.8
St. Lucia 74.4 75.2 72.2 75.4 70.9
Jordan 78.7 75.8 79.6 79.4 78.8
Egypt, Arab Rep. 76.1 76.1 83.7 88.3 89.0
Macao SAR, China 72.6 77.0 70.7 76.3 42.0
Philippines 67.9 78.5 63.3 58.9 58.3
Seychelles 78.9 79.6 92.3 103.4 110.1
Luxembourg 75.1 79.8
Antigua and Barbuda 72.8 81.4 83.9 89.3 80.9
Australia 83.3 83.4 87.9 91.3 93.4
Grenada 73.2 84.4 86.7 84.0 72.4
Italy 87.6 85.8 86.5
Ireland 77.5 85.9 89.8
Portugal 84.8 86.6 92.9
Kuwait 75.8 87.8 106.9 92.4 70.4
France 98.3 98.4
Spain 97.3 99.5 102.7
New Zealand 91.4 99.5 104.9 108.5 108.0
China 92.8 100.1 112.5 118.7 119.0
Guyana 130.2 114.5 116.6 103.0 100.5
United Kingdom 114.8 115.0 113.4 116.9 123.7
Netherlands 109.7 115.9
Lebanon 98.9 116.4 134.7 150.8 175.1
Canada 115.9 117.8 116.0 114.6 111.5
Malta 112.6 118.4 124.9 129.4 128.5
Austria 125.0 128.2
Germany 128.4 133.5 139.2
South Africa 135.9 134.5 135.6 149.4 148.6
Belgium 146.1 140.8
Cyprus 144.6 153.4 157.0 169.4 171.0
Hong Kong SAR, China 151.8 162.1 144.6 135.0 134.0
Malaysia 142.4 163.4 162.1 150.1 138.4
Switzerland 163.2 164.1 158.8 165.3 158.2
Thailand 145.5 178.4 173.9 150.8 134.3
United States 171.0 179.4 190.0 201.3 191.0
Japan 288.5 272.5 294.0 305.5 304.7
Brunei Darussalam 41.0 38.6
Montenegro
Somalia
South Sudan
Greenland
Mauritania
Congo, Dem. Rep. 1.3
Liechtenstein
West Bank and Gaza 4.5 4.9 7.0
Liberia 247.5 182.1 174.5
French Polynesia
Afghanistan
Curacao
St. Martin (French part)
Monaco
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Sao Tome and Principe
Kiribati
Marshall Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
New Caledonia
Turks and Caicos Islands
Faroe Islands
Isle of Man
Turkmenistan
Iraq
Tuvalu
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Cuba
Palau
Cayman Islands
Puerto Rico
Tajikistan 22.1 20.8 17.9
Uzbekistan
Guam
Bermuda
Andorra
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
San Marino
Timor-Leste
American Samoa

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