Country name 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Turkmenistan 3.2 0.6 1.4 1.7 1.2
Sudan 1.6 2.8 2.1 2.0 1.6
Azerbaijan 1.2 1.2 2.4 3.1 3.0
Ukraine 1.5 1.4 2.5 7.8 8.6
Chad 3.9 3.6 3.2 3.3 3.6
Sierra Leone 2.7 2.5 3.2 2.7 2.1
Niger 4.5 4.3 3.3 4.0 3.8
Kyrgyz Republic 12.5 8.7 3.5 5.3 5.1
Tanzania 6.7 3.1 3.5 3.9 4.2
Yemen, Rep. 4.6 3.0 3.9 5.3 5.2
Algeria 5.2 5.4 3.9 4.6 5.4
Albania 3.8 3.5 4.1 3.7 3.9
Malawi 6.5 4.5 4.3 7.1 8.0
Central African Republic 4.2 4.5 4.4 4.9 4.5
Guinea 5.0 4.9 4.5 3.7
Georgia 6.1 3.3 4.6 6.1 7.4
Equatorial Guinea 4.8 5.2 4.7 6.5 5.6
Uganda 4.6 5.3 4.8 5.6 6.4
Mongolia 8.0 8.8 5.2 9.1 7.4
Angola 5.3 3.2 5.2 3.6 2.6
Kazakhstan 7.1 6.3 5.2 6.4 8.2
Benin 7.4 8.5 5.4 6.9 10.5
Gambia, The 4.8 4.4 5.4 5.7 6.6
Armenia 7.3 5.6 6.0 7.4 8.7
Cambodia 3.5 4.7 6.3 5.6 5.7
Cameroon 8.2 7.9 6.5 7.4 7.8
Moldova 6.7 7.7 7.0 14.4 11.8
Guinea-Bissau 8.7 6.7 7.1 10.3 7.1
Zambia 7.7 8.6 7.3 6.4 6.8
Congo, Rep. 8.1 7.5 7.9 9.7 10.9
Rwanda 8.4 6.8 8.1 8.8 9.9
Ghana 5.1 6.0 8.2 9.4 12.6
Belarus 6.1 6.4 8.3 16.1 9.3
Romania 11.5 8.4 11.6 8.1
Bulgaria 40.0 61.7 8.6 9.2 11.5
Gabon 7.9 6.6 8.7 10.8 10.0
Botswana 11.9 10.1 9.7 12.2 13.9
Latvia 7.2 6.7 9.7 13.0 13.6
Syrian Arab Republic 11.2 9.6 9.8 9.2 9.2
Madagascar 11.5 9.7 10.0 8.9 8.3
Myanmar 7.6 9.6 10.3 9.7 8.1
Nigeria 10.0 9.0 10.7 13.0 13.5
Russian Federation 9.4 8.3 10.7 15.6 13.1
Bhutan 7.6 6.7 11.1 9.5 8.3
Burkina Faso 6.8 6.9 11.6 11.0 10.1
Mozambique 11.5 9.4 11.8 12.7 14.9
Burundi 12.3 14.2 11.9 13.5 15.4
Lao PDR 9.1 9.0 13.0 12.6 8.4
Solomon Islands 11.8 12.7 13.4 14.6 15.0
Comoros 13.5 11.1 13.4 11.6 11.7
Mali 10.7 12.9 13.9 16.6 18.4
Swaziland 15.1 14.3 14.0 13.4 13.1
Costa Rica 10.6 13.4 14.6 18.5 20.3
Venezuela, RB 12.2 9.8 14.7 14.1 13.6
Haiti 12.5 12.8 15.7 14.1 14.5
Senegal 14.7 16.0 15.8 14.8 15.4
Maldives 13.9 13.5 16.7 19.7 18.8
Nicaragua 16.6 13.4 16.8 20.4 23.7
Cote d'Ivoire 18.5 16.7 17.1 15.9 14.4
Suriname 6.6 13.2 17.1 21.4 14.5
Papua New Guinea 14.6 13.4 17.3 20.2 17.7
Ethiopia 9.2 14.1 17.5 20.8 25.0
Togo 20.1 18.8 17.8 17.3 15.1
Iran, Islamic Rep. 17.7 16.5 18.0 19.4 19.6
Guatemala 19.3 19.0 18.6 20.5 20.7
Seychelles 16.4 18.2 19.5 19.9 20.7
Vietnam 18.5 18.7 19.8 20.1 28.2
Samoa 17.5 18.7 19.9 22.3 25.1
Bangladesh 20.9 18.9 20.0 20.5 21.0
Jamaica 24.1 22.5 20.8 23.5 24.0
Poland 16.9 19.2 20.8 22.5 25.5
Saudi Arabia 22.7 20.9 21.6 29.4 26.9
Argentina 20.0 20.2 21.9 24.2 24.9
Libya 32.5 23.7 22.0 24.6 23.9
Serbia 22.0 24.4 27.6
Mexico 24.4 15.7 22.1 19.9 16.9
Dominican Republic 19.1 20.7 22.1 23.3 26.5
India 22.1 23.0 23.1 23.3 25.0
Hungary 21.8 21.5 23.6 23.5 25.6
Nepal 22.8 23.2 23.9 28.7 28.9
Ecuador 22.1 22.2 24.0 22.0 22.4
Pakistan 24.2 24.7 24.6 25.1 25.5
Lesotho 21.3 19.0 24.8 18.4 16.8
Slovenia 24.7 25.6 25.4 29.6 32.8
Peru 16.9 22.1 25.5 29.3 30.0
Uruguay 26.4 26.8 25.9 40.5 43.6
Turkey 18.5 22.8 26.3 17.2 16.6
Macedonia, FYR 23.1 26.5 27.3 17.7 20.9
Kenya 34.5 27.0 27.9 27.3 29.3
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 29.5 27.5 28.1 29.9 32.1
Sri Lanka 31.1 29.9 29.4 28.7 29.3
Greece 28.8 29.5 30.5 32.1 38.8
Qatar 34.7 31.1 30.6 38.8 34.8
United Arab Emirates 29.7 29.2 31.1 36.9 35.6
Croatia 26.2 24.6 31.4 35.0 31.9
Denmark 30.3 31.0 31.5 34.3 34.1
Estonia 16.2 22.1 32.1 31.9 31.8
Cabo Verde 27.6 26.9 32.2 32.2 41.3
Honduras 24.8 26.2 32.3 37.7 41.6
Paraguay 24.0 25.8 32.8 25.2 26.4
Fiji 40.1 39.0 33.5 29.3 26.1
Vanuatu 37.7 36.6 34.9 32.5 36.0
Eritrea 17.1 34.6 35.2 46.5 33.3
Oman 25.6 26.6 35.6 47.3 46.1
Colombia 33.7 35.3 36.5 35.2 31.7
Zimbabwe 33.8 31.2 38.6 34.7 22.3
Egypt, Arab Rep. 32.7 36.5 39.7 46.6 52.0
El Salvador 34.9 36.8 40.3 41.9 43.8
Brazil 42.6 40.6 40.7 29.4 29.7
Tonga 36.6 36.0 40.9 42.9 38.3
Belize 35.2 37.3 41.3 44.3 43.8
Namibia 43.8 41.4 42.1 41.4 39.6
Morocco 28.6 27.6 42.8 43.9 47.7
Djibouti 42.8 44.3 43.2 46.1 28.9
Aruba 43.1 45.4 43.2 41.9 44.6
Barbados 41.7 40.8 43.3 44.5 46.6
Trinidad and Tobago 43.4 38.8 44.3 46.7 45.4
Bahrain 43.1 41.6 45.0 50.1 52.3
Kuwait 30.0 33.7 47.0 60.7 54.7
Guyana 28.0 42.0 48.2 56.1 57.1
Mauritius 47.0 43.4 49.1 56.4 57.1
Bahamas, The 60.1 62.3 51.4 53.0 52.5
Finland 60.3 57.7 51.5 50.3
Italy 54.0 52.5 53.2 55.7
Slovak Republic 35.8 42.4 54.3 52.5 53.6
Philippines 37.5 49.0 56.5 43.3 38.5
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 48.2 52.5 56.5 56.7 60.9
Korea, Rep. 49.2 52.5 57.6 62.9 68.4
Dominica 57.0 56.2 58.2 58.8 58.1
Bolivia 48.2 52.7 58.3 64.1 64.4
Tunisia 68.4 63.2 58.9 59.9 59.5
Bosnia and Herzegovina 60.2 57.9 48.0
Indonesia 53.5 55.5 60.8 53.2 20.6
Norway 54.8 56.9 62.1 69.0 67.2
Iceland 44.9 47.4 64.6 62.5 71.2
Czech Republic 65.7 63.9 65.1 57.2 51.8
Israel 61.9 63.1 65.2 69.4 72.2
Antigua and Barbuda 53.0 58.2 65.6 65.9 68.0
Lebanon 54.9 60.5 66.1 73.9 82.3
Chile 49.7 54.1 67.2 66.9 70.3
Jordan 68.9 69.4 70.0 69.1 71.4
St. Kitts and Nevis 70.8 70.1 70.2 72.7 74.2
Grenada 58.6 62.3 71.4 74.4 74.9
St. Lucia 62.5 70.1 71.8 70.9 74.6
Belgium 71.6 73.6 74.2
Panama 78.1 71.3 75.2 86.1 96.8
Australia 69.8 71.5 75.3 79.2 84.3
Spain 70.4 71.1 76.1 82.9
Portugal 62.6 69.4 77.1 88.4
France 84.0 80.8 79.8
Ireland 67.6 71.8 80.8 85.6
Luxembourg 82.0 82.6 88.5
Macao SAR, China 79.8 84.3 91.8 86.7 89.1
Sweden 93.4 92.0 92.7 93.0 93.7
Malta 86.3 95.3 96.3 100.8 106.4
Singapore 88.2 93.6 96.4 108.0 102.7
China 84.5 89.8 97.1 105.6 110.8
Netherlands 87.8 93.7 98.7
Canada 90.4 95.2 99.2 97.7 97.3
Austria 91.9 94.8 100.2
New Zealand 88.5 93.6 100.4 105.0 107.6
Germany 97.8 103.6 107.7 113.5
United Kingdom 105.9 109.1 110.7 110.9 114.2
South Africa 116.0 116.7 113.4 115.2 131.0
Cyprus 112.6 122.8 130.2 133.8 197.6
United States 129.8 137.2 146.1 157.3 171.1
Switzerland 151.4 149.3 150.4 148.6 155.3
Malaysia 124.4 141.6 158.4 158.5 149.2
Thailand 139.8 147.2 165.7 155.9 131.9
Hong Kong SAR, China 149.4 156.7 169.3 166.8 152.8
Japan 201.2 202.4 214.6 224.7 227.8
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Iraq
San Marino
Puerto Rico
Tajikistan 12.9 17.7
Curacao
Somalia
Isle of Man
Congo, Dem. Rep. 1.1
South Sudan
Tuvalu
American Samoa
Sao Tome and Principe
Uzbekistan
Liechtenstein
Middle East (developing only)
Faeroe Islands
New Caledonia
Timor-Leste
West Bank and Gaza 4.7 5.2
Marshall Islands
Cuba
Greenland
Lithuania
Kiribati
Turks and Caicos Islands
Brunei Darussalam 60.2
Cayman Islands
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Liberia 7.9 5.0
Mauritania
French Polynesia
Bermuda
Palau
Northern Mariana Islands
Monaco
St. Martin (French part)
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Montenegro
Andorra
Guam
Afghanistan

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