Country name 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Iraq 0.0 63.8 77.9 77.6 75.7
Myanmar 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.5
French Polynesia 4.2 4.4 4.1 5.0 4.9
Burundi 5.8 9.8 8.0 7.6 6.3
Rwanda 6.0 7.8 5.6 6.2 6.3
Brazil 6.7 7.0 7.0 9.6 10.2
Sudan 7.5 5.3 6.7 7.8 16.0
Japan 9.7 10.7 10.8 10.2 10.9
Bangladesh 9.7 10.5 11.8 11.8 12.3
India 10.2 10.5 10.8 11.3 12.8
Argentina 10.4 10.6 10.4 9.8 11.0
Guinea-Bissau 10.5 21.0 14.4 24.9 21.8
Burkina Faso 10.6 10.8 12.8 9.5 9.5
United States 10.7 11.1 10.5 10.3 10.7
Albania 11.2 9.7 10.8 15.8 17.9
Haiti 11.3 10.5 9.9 12.2 12.7
Uganda 12.0 13.4 9.6 12.3 10.7
Lebanon 12.8 14.5 13.8 14.1 14.2
Palau 12.9 10.4 9.5 12.0 44.4
Mozambique 13.2 12.0 10.9 10.2 12.8
Georgia 13.3 15.6 16.5 19.1 23.0
Peru 13.6 14.7 13.8 15.5 16.8
Greece 14.3 16.2 16.3 19.3 23.7
Serbia 15.0 15.7 21.2 11.7 9.9
Colombia 15.2 14.8 15.0 18.3 15.9
Cuba 15.3 14.9 14.3 14.5 14.1
New Caledonia 15.3 16.5 12.0 13.1
West Bank and Gaza 16.0 17.3 18.1 17.6 20.5
Kiribati 16.1 20.1 24.4 12.2 12.9
Nicaragua 16.8 19.4 19.3 18.5 20.1
Pakistan 16.9 16.1 16.5 15.4 13.4
Sierra Leone 17.4 13.2 14.1 13.8 18.1
Chad 17.5 18.5 18.5 18.3 16.9
China 17.6 19.1 17.9 17.9 20.7
Guatemala 17.8 18.0 18.2 19.0 20.2
Comoros 18.3 18.1 11.4 12.7 23.0
Niger 18.5 16.8 17.8 15.9 17.8
Mali 18.9 23.8 21.3 20.8 22.8
Australia 18.9 19.1 19.6 18.4 19.4
Guinea 19.2 19.6 21.3 21.6 24.5
Uruguay 19.7 17.5 16.4 15.1 16.7
Tanzania 19.9 16.2 12.4 12.5 13.4
Iran, Islamic Rep. 20.2 17.3 12.7 19.3 21.5
Cabo Verde 20.2 27.4 22.8 21.0 27.0
Tonga 20.4 21.1 19.9 16.0 15.4
Madagascar 20.5 21.9 21.5 24.5 30.7
Egypt, Arab Rep. 20.7 18.8 16.2 15.1 16.2
El Salvador 21.1 25.9 24.8 24.9 27.4
Central African Republic 21.5 26.9 22.7 19.2 20.4
Turkey 21.5 24.6 21.3 19.4 20.1
Gambia, The 21.8 22.9 25.3 24.4 25.8
Ecuador 22.3 21.5 17.9 26.4 32.1
Poland 22.4 23.5 26.1 24.3 27.2
Bolivia 22.6 21.1 19.7 16.9 18.3
Lao PDR 22.7 23.9 36.5 35.9 30.1
Morocco 22.7 25.1 24.4 26.3 28.0
Nepal 22.8 26.3 22.8 22.8 23.3
France 22.8 25.2 25.8 25.7 28.2
Malawi 22.8 21.4 32.8 28.0 25.6
Germany 22.9 25.4 26.5 27.0 30.8
Spain 23.1 25.8 26.2 26.4 28.6
Armenia 23.2 20.3 19.0 20.8 23.4
Suriname 23.3 25.2 31.1 27.2 19.7
Cameroon 23.4 21.4 21.4 21.5 23.3
Bosnia and Herzegovina 23.6 27.8 27.3 27.6 28.7
Italy 23.8 24.2 24.1 23.2 25.6
South Africa 24.1 24.0 25.0 24.7 27.2
Kenya 25.2 22.7 20.2 20.8 21.6
Cambodia 25.4 33.6 31.2 40.5 49.8
Korea, Rep. 25.7 29.8 42.4 35.8 35.0
Indonesia 25.8 27.9 53.0 35.5 41.0
Russian Federation 26.1 24.7 31.2 43.2 44.1
Benin 26.5 27.2 27.1 23.7 21.1
Portugal 26.5 27.1 27.3 26.5 28.2
Mexico 26.7 25.2 25.7 25.5 26.3
Senegal 27.0 27.3 27.7 28.1 27.9
Israel 27.1 27.9 28.6 32.7 35.6
Chile 27.3 27.1 26.3 29.6 29.3
Uzbekistan 27.7 27.0 22.5 18.1 24.6
United Kingdom 27.7 27.1 25.2 25.1 26.3
Seychelles 27.7 20.1 20.1 23.3 75.5
Romania 28.1 29.2 22.9 27.7 32.7
Macedonia, FYR 28.2 37.3 41.2 42.2 32.9
New Zealand 28.3 28.3 29.6 31.0 35.7
Zambia 28.5 27.4 24.6 25.0 23.9
Libya 28.7 26.8 19.4 20.2 31.6
Eritrea 29.2 29.6 14.8 9.5 9.7
Azerbaijan 29.5 29.0 22.7 28.0 39.0
Algeria 29.8 30.9 22.6 26.8 41.2
Lesotho 29.9 29.0 32.2 28.4 34.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. 30.0 18.8 29.8 23.6 11.4
Croatia 30.7 31.3 29.5 30.5 36.5
Kyrgyz Republic 30.7 38.3 36.5 42.2 41.8
Samoa 31.5 29.1 32.4 31.9 30.1
Syrian Arab Republic 31.8 32.4 30.5 32.3 35.4
Ghana 32.1 32.4 33.9 32.1 48.8
Nigeria 32.2 41.8 29.7 33.9 51.7
Togo 33.3 29.0 29.7 28.9 34.4
Austria 34.3 37.1 38.5 39.4 43.4
Solomon Islands 34.4 38.7 36.2 35.7 24.1
Sri Lanka 35.0 36.5 36.2 35.5 39.0
Dominican Republic 35.2 36.2 35.8 36.6 37.0
Kazakhstan 35.3 34.9 30.3 42.5 56.6
Iceland 35.5 35.4 33.9 32.7 32.5
Bhutan 35.5 35.9 33.1 31.1 29.0
Mongolia 35.5 52.7 47.8 50.2 54.0
Zimbabwe 36.1 37.6 43.4 37.4 38.2
Finland 36.3 37.8 37.5 37.6 42.1
Venezuela, RB 36.5 29.3 20.9 22.9 29.7
Sweden 36.8 40.1 41.0 41.0 44.1
Denmark 37.1 37.8 37.2 39.4 44.9
Canada 37.2 38.3 40.1 42.0 44.4
Czech Republic 38.4 40.6 42.3 43.0 48.3
Yemen, Rep. 38.5 36.3 26.5 34.8 41.4
Djibouti 38.5 38.8 40.4 37.3 35.1
Thailand 39.0 48.2 57.9 56.4 64.8
Costa Rica 39.3 40.7 47.4 51.7 48.6
Norway 39.9 40.6 36.9 38.6 45.7
St. Kitts and Nevis 40.0 39.3 39.8 37.5 35.7
Saudi Arabia 40.3 39.4 29.8 34.8 43.7
Latvia 40.5 39.7 39.2 35.0 36.9
Philippines 40.5 49.0 44.8 45.5 51.4
Vietnam 40.9 43.1 44.8 50.0 50.0
Cote d'Ivoire 41.1 42.9 41.4 42.4 40.8
Switzerland 41.8 47.2 46.7 47.4 52.2
Hungary 41.9 47.9 52.9 55.6 66.8
Lithuania 41.9 45.0 39.1 32.4 38.5
Tunisia 42.1 39.1 38.5 38.0 39.5
Qatar 43.7 48.3 51.1 60.0 67.3
Jamaica 43.8 39.1
Grenada 44.7 44.0 46.2 57.4 45.3
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 45.0 42.7 42.1 45.3 45.3
Ukraine 45.7 40.6 41.9 53.7 62.4
Namibia 45.9 43.2 41.9 42.0 40.9
Vanuatu 46.0 52.1 42.3 37.4 39.2
Slovenia 46.2 47.6 47.5 44.1 50.0
Belarus 46.3 59.9 59.1 59.2 69.2
Honduras 46.9 46.2 46.4 41.0 54.0
Barbados 47.0 45.6 41.5 40.9 42.4
Bahamas, The 48.0 43.0 40.4 42.5 44.4
Trinidad and Tobago 48.9 52.2 48.5 50.2 59.4
Mauritania 49.4 42.1 30.9 27.2 30.0
Oman 49.8 50.0 42.0 48.7 53.7
Belize 50.0 52.8 52.6 55.1 53.0
Dominica 51.3 55.8 58.7 58.6 43.0
Kuwait 52.3 52.9 43.9 45.9 56.5
Slovak Republic 52.3 55.1 46.7 47.5 54.1
Paraguay 52.7 48.5 56.3 45.3 46.8
Jordan 52.9 49.3 44.9 43.4 41.9
Botswana 53.8 60.9 49.3 55.2 51.8
Moldova 55.3 54.8 48.5 52.1 49.8
Netherlands 57.6 60.7 59.7 60.2 66.5
Bulgaria 59.0 50.1 43.1 43.2 36.5
Swaziland 59.4 61.4 67.2 65.0 74.3
Papua New Guinea 59.4 49.2 54.0 63.1 66.2
Brunei Darussalam 59.9 57.2 50.5 55.8 67.4
Belgium 60.4 63.9 63.4 63.9 71.9
Estonia 61.8 71.6 74.4 70.2 61.6
St. Lucia 62.3 59.3 58.4 55.2 48.3
Gabon 62.7 61.3 47.4 59.6 69.0
Fiji 62.8 61.0 60.8 61.0 65.2
Mauritius 63.6 61.5 65.7 63.9 61.4
Puerto Rico 64.1 63.6 67.1 69.7 72.2
Congo, Rep. 68.5 75.6 76.3 72.3 80.3
Cyprus 70.4 69.5 69.0 67.3 70.4
Turkmenistan 74.6 42.7 32.7 56.1 95.5
Ireland 74.8 77.2 84.4 86.6 94.5
Antigua and Barbuda 75.7 76.4 75.1 72.5 59.6
Tajikistan 76.6 87.2 48.9 66.1 98.8
Malta 77.4 76.3 78.9 82.9 90.6
Equatorial Guinea 80.1 116.7 115.9 123.6 122.1
Angola 82.7 68.5 56.7 86.3 89.6
Panama 83.4 90.1 79.2 66.5 72.6
Macao SAR, China 83.4 83.7 84.6 87.0 100.4
Aruba 86.6 82.5 79.6 79.9 74.4
Bahrain 87.9 79.1 64.6 78.9 79.2
Malaysia 91.6 93.3 115.7 121.3 119.8
Maldives 91.7 91.2 92.4 90.5 89.5
Guyana 102.6 99.7 95.9 96.5 96.1
Luxembourg 109.3 118.9 125.4 132.0 147.5
Hong Kong SAR, China 136.4 129.3 124.3 127.0 141.8
Singapore 176.1 169.9 167.6 177.2 189.2
Monaco
Andorra
Guam
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Curacao
Tuvalu
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Greenland
Sao Tome and Principe
Afghanistan
Marshall Islands
Somalia
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Turks and Caicos Islands
United Arab Emirates
American Samoa
Timor-Leste 9.8
Isle of Man
Liechtenstein
Bermuda
Ethiopia
St. Martin (French part)
Liberia 8.8 10.8 14.6 31.4
Northern Mariana Islands
Cayman Islands
South Sudan
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
San Marino
Faroe Islands 44.3 46.7 49.7
Montenegro 36.8

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