Country name 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
United Arab Emirates 0.9 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2
Singapore 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.4
Bahrain 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1
Brunei Darussalam 1.2 1.9 1.9 2.2 1.0
Bahamas, The 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.3
Puerto Rico 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.1 2.2
Japan 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.2
Oman 2.8 3.4 3.5 3.8 3.2
Trinidad and Tobago 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.6
Norway 3.3 3.7 3.8 3.6 3.3
Austria 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4
Saudi Arabia 3.7 4.9 5.7 6.3 6.3
France 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.2 3.5
Netherlands 4.1 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.4
Malta 4.4 4.4 4.3 3.9 3.8
Sweden 4.5 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.9
Antigua and Barbuda 4.9 4.5 4.5 4.2 4.0
South Africa 5.2 5.0 5.6 5.8 5.4
Jordan 5.5 5.9 6.7 6.7 6.0
Australia 5.7 5.1 5.0 5.2 5.4
Seychelles 5.8 6.0 5.3 4.7 4.3
Barbados 6.2 6.4 6.9 6.5 5.2
Venezuela, RB 6.3 6.7 6.6 6.8 6.3
Botswana 6.4 5.7 6.7 6.0 5.0
Gabon 6.8 9.2 11.0 10.1 8.7
Congo, Rep. 7.4 12.1 11.9 13.9 12.9
New Zealand 7.5 6.3 6.6 7.0 7.4
Cyprus 7.5 7.3 7.4 7.2 6.9
Argentina 7.6 7.8 8.1 9.0 9.6
Chile 7.6 9.0 9.2 8.9 8.7
Finland 7.8 7.5 6.0 6.0 6.1
Namibia 7.8 8.2 9.7 9.8 9.1
Panama 8.3 8.9 9.0 9.5 10.2
Algeria 9.0 10.2 12.9 12.2 13.0
St. Kitts and Nevis 9.1 10.8 10.6 9.7 7.7
Suriname 9.1 10.1 11.2 10.9 9.8
Mexico 10.1 10.3 9.7 7.9 7.8
Brazil 11.5 11.2 10.0 10.1 8.5
Costa Rica 11.9 13.2 13.5 13.0 12.4
Bulgaria 11.9 13.1 11.4 10.9 10.6
Korea, Rep. 12.5 11.1 9.9 9.9 9.1
Cuba 12.5 13.6 13.7 13.9 13.7
Cabo Verde 13.0 13.6 17.6 17.7 16.2
Angola 13.5 14.4 12.9 15.9 19.1
Uruguay 13.6 12.7 13.7 12.0 10.9
Dominican Republic 14.5 19.1 12.8 17.0 14.9
Zambia 14.6 13.6 12.0 17.4 21.2
St. Lucia 15.2 18.1 13.2 16.2 13.3
Thailand 15.8 15.7 15.7 16.2 15.1
Mauritius 16.2 16.2 15.4 13.9 13.1
Mongolia 16.4 18.7 16.4 16.6 15.5
Morocco 16.5 19.7 15.2 18.3 18.4
Grenada 17.1 16.8 18.7 17.9 15.4
Colombia 17.5 18.0 18.7 17.4 16.6
Tunisia 18.1 14.9 18.8 13.5 14.6
Fiji 18.3 20.9 23.0 19.5 22.2
Iran, Islamic Rep. 19.4 23.1 24.5 23.2 23.5
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 19.6 19.1 17.0 17.8 17.0
Ecuador 19.6 21.9 22.4 23.0 23.4
Malaysia 19.9 19.8 20.0 20.1 18.1
Egypt, Arab Rep. 20.0 20.8 20.5 19.0 19.7
Turkey 20.3 20.1 18.5 17.8 17.1
Belize 20.4 21.0 22.7 22.3 20.4
Bolivia 20.6 18.3 17.7 17.2 16.7
Swaziland 20.7 22.2 16.5 16.1 15.3
Cameroon 21.6 22.4 24.8 24.7 26.1
Latvia 21.6 20.3 18.0 21.7 19.9
Honduras 21.9 20.6 20.9 21.2 21.1
Syrian Arab Republic 21.9 24.9 26.6 31.8 24.8
Mauritania 22.5 26.6 32.3 32.7 31.9
Zimbabwe 22.7 17.8 14.4 16.4 14.9
Indonesia 23.2 24.2 23.3 22.5 21.7
Senegal 23.2 24.1 24.9 21.2 22.6
Lesotho 24.6 23.6 25.4 27.0 24.9
Philippines 24.6 23.9 24.0 23.0 22.7
Georgia 26.0 26.6 24.2 24.3 23.3
Cote d'Ivoire 26.5 28.5 29.2 32.0 32.7
Guyana 26.8 26.7 29.9 26.0 39.9
Sri Lanka 27.7 27.1 27.0 26.3 25.6
Vanuatu 27.8 23.9 20.4 20.0 20.3
Dominica 27.9 30.2 29.8 28.5 24.0
China 28.4 27.1 26.8 25.7 25.1
Pakistan 28.5 27.6 26.2 26.0 26.9
India 30.9 29.7 29.2 30.2 29.0
Benin 31.5 33.7 33.3 34.4 37.9
Congo, Dem. Rep. 31.8 33.6 29.7 29.8 28.6
Kenya 32.6 33.0 31.5 29.9 30.2
Tajikistan 32.7 33.0 30.7 31.7 32.1
Bangladesh 32.8 31.9 32.4 31.1 30.4
Sudan 33.5 36.3 32.8 41.5 39.2
Togo 33.7 34.8 33.5 33.6 32.2
Albania 34.6 34.0 33.2 31.5 32.3
Madagascar 35.1 36.8 36.2 33.5 32.9
Burkina Faso 35.2 30.9 28.9 29.9 28.9
Kiribati 35.4 26.8 27.9 33.7 28.1
Comoros 36.1 37.4 38.0 39.5 40.9
Liberia 36.5 37.4 38.1 38.1 38.7
Papua New Guinea 36.6 35.3 32.9 32.0 30.1
Niger 36.7 34.7 35.2 35.4 34.1
Tonga 37.8 39.0 38.9 38.0 36.0
Chad 38.1 32.6 33.1 36.8 31.7
Nigeria 39.2 40.3 37.3 41.6 32.2
Vietnam 40.2 38.1 40.6 46.3 42.1
Mali 40.3 42.4 45.2 45.0 47.8
Rwanda 41.8 37.5 37.7 39.2 40.3
Malawi 42.9 43.1 49.0 50.0 47.7
Bhutan 43.5 42.1 36.6 38.3 35.8
Sierra Leone 45.1 38.0 45.0 46.0 46.0
Guinea-Bissau 46.5 45.3 57.6 58.1 50.2
Mozambique 47.5 41.1 44.1 42.9 47.4
Central African Republic 47.6 50.2 47.3 48.9 47.7
Myanmar 48.2 50.2 55.3 57.4 57.0
Ghana 48.4 48.0 50.7 49.7 49.4
Nepal 51.7 51.5 50.7 50.9 50.4
Uganda 52.7 56.6 56.8 56.7 56.8
Ethiopia 55.4 53.9 52.0 51.6 51.2
Burundi 61.5 58.5 55.1 54.2 53.7
Somalia 66.8 62.4 64.2 69.3 63.6
Belarus
Libya
Lao PDR 60.6
Italy
Uzbekistan 27.6 29.3 31.1
Marshall Islands
Liechtenstein
Israel
Turks and Caicos Islands
Djibouti 3.3
Cayman Islands
Denmark
Slovenia
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Switzerland
Moldova 36.5
Macao SAR, China
Monaco
Armenia
Czech Republic
Lithuania
Montenegro
Serbia
Curacao
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Estonia
Maldives
Jamaica
Guam
Croatia
Greenland
Macedonia, FYR
Greece
Isle of Man
Aruba
New Caledonia
Luxembourg
Ireland
United States
Nicaragua
American Samoa
French Polynesia
Sao Tome and Principe
Eritrea
Haiti
Northern Mariana Islands
Canada
Iraq
Cambodia
El Salvador
Slovak Republic
Spain
Solomon Islands
Guinea 23.9 24.7 23.5 24.1
St. Martin (French part)
South Sudan
Guatemala
Kyrgyz Republic 31.8 33.6
Iceland
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Palau
Kuwait
Afghanistan
Bermuda
Hungary
Belgium
Paraguay
Faeroe Islands
Peru
Tanzania
Hong Kong SAR, China
Timor-Leste
Poland
Kosovo
Portugal
Azerbaijan
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Turkmenistan 27.6 26.9 28.9
Yemen, Rep.
Tuvalu
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Ukraine 21.7 20.9 22.9
Russian Federation 16.8
United Kingdom
Kazakhstan
Andorra
Samoa
Germany
San Marino
Equatorial Guinea
Qatar
West Bank and Gaza
Romania
Gambia, The
Lebanon

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