Country name 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
Singapore 1.0 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.4
United Arab Emirates 0.9 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.2
Bahrain 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1
Brunei Darussalam 1.2 1.9 1.9 2.2 1.0
Bahamas, The 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.3
Puerto Rico 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.1 2.2
Japan 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.2
Trinidad and Tobago 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.6
Oman 2.8 3.4 3.5 3.8 3.2
France 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.2 3.5
Austria 3.6 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4
Norway 3.3 3.7 3.8 3.6 3.3
Netherlands 4.1 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.4
Sweden 4.5 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.9
Malta 4.4 4.4 4.3 3.9 3.8
Antigua and Barbuda 4.9 4.5 4.5 4.2 4.0
Saudi Arabia 3.7 4.9 5.7 6.3 6.3
South Africa 5.2 5.0 5.6 5.8 5.4
Australia 5.7 5.1 5.0 5.2 5.4
Botswana 6.4 5.7 6.7 6.0 5.0
Jordan 5.5 5.9 6.7 6.7 6.0
Seychelles 5.8 6.0 5.3 4.7 4.3
New Zealand 7.5 6.3 6.6 7.0 7.4
Barbados 6.2 6.4 6.9 6.5 5.2
Venezuela, RB 6.3 6.7 6.6 6.8 6.3
Cyprus 7.5 7.3 7.4 7.2 6.9
Finland 7.8 7.5 6.0 6.0 6.1
Argentina 7.6 7.8 8.1 9.0 9.6
Namibia 7.8 8.2 9.7 9.8 9.1
Panama 8.3 8.9 9.0 9.5 10.2
Chile 7.6 9.0 9.2 8.9 8.7
Gabon 6.8 9.2 11.0 10.1 8.7
Suriname 9.1 10.1 11.2 10.9 9.8
Algeria 9.0 10.2 12.9 12.2 13.0
Mexico 10.1 10.3 9.7 7.9 7.8
St. Kitts and Nevis 9.1 10.8 10.6 9.7 7.7
Korea, Rep. 12.5 11.1 9.9 9.9 9.1
Brazil 11.5 11.2 10.0 10.1 8.5
Congo, Rep. 7.4 12.1 11.9 13.9 12.9
Uruguay 13.6 12.7 13.7 12.0 10.9
Bulgaria 11.9 13.1 11.4 10.9 10.6
Costa Rica 11.9 13.2 13.5 13.0 12.4
Zambia 14.6 13.6 12.0 17.4 21.2
Cabo Verde 13.0 13.6 17.6 17.7 16.2
Cuba 12.5 13.6 13.7 13.9 13.7
Angola 13.5 14.4 12.9 15.9 19.1
Tunisia 18.1 14.9 18.8 13.5 14.6
Thailand 15.8 15.7 15.7 16.2 15.1
Mauritius 16.2 16.2 15.4 13.9 13.1
Grenada 17.1 16.8 18.7 17.9 15.4
Zimbabwe 22.7 17.8 14.4 16.4 14.9
Colombia 17.5 18.0 18.7 17.4 16.6
St. Lucia 15.2 18.1 13.2 16.2 13.3
Bolivia 20.6 18.3 17.7 17.2 16.7
Mongolia 16.4 18.7 16.4 16.6 15.5
Dominican Republic 14.5 19.1 12.8 17.0 14.9
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 19.6 19.1 17.0 17.8 17.0
Morocco 16.5 19.7 15.2 18.3 18.4
Malaysia 19.9 19.8 20.0 20.1 18.1
Turkey 20.3 20.1 18.5 17.8 17.1
Latvia 21.6 20.3 18.0 21.7 19.9
Honduras 21.9 20.6 20.9 21.2 21.1
Egypt, Arab Rep. 20.0 20.8 20.5 19.0 19.7
Fiji 18.3 20.9 23.0 19.5 22.2
Belize 20.4 21.0 22.7 22.3 20.4
Ecuador 19.6 21.9 22.4 23.0 23.4
Swaziland 20.7 22.2 16.5 16.1 15.3
Cameroon 21.6 22.4 24.8 24.7 26.1
Iran, Islamic Rep. 19.4 23.1 24.5 23.2 23.5
Lesotho 24.6 23.6 25.4 27.0 24.9
Guinea 23.9 24.7 23.5 24.1
Vanuatu 27.8 23.9 20.4 20.0 20.3
Philippines 24.6 23.9 24.0 23.0 22.7
Senegal 23.2 24.1 24.9 21.2 22.6
Indonesia 23.2 24.2 23.3 22.5 21.7
Syrian Arab Republic 21.9 24.9 26.6 31.8 24.8
Georgia 26.0 26.6 24.2 24.3 23.3
Mauritania 22.5 26.6 32.3 32.7 31.9
Guyana 26.8 26.7 29.9 26.0 39.9
Kiribati 35.4 26.8 27.9 33.7 28.1
Sri Lanka 27.7 27.1 27.0 26.3 25.6
China 28.4 27.1 26.8 25.7 25.1
Pakistan 28.5 27.6 26.2 26.0 26.9
Cote d'Ivoire 26.5 28.5 29.2 32.0 32.7
India 30.9 29.7 29.2 30.2 29.0
Dominica 27.9 30.2 29.8 28.5 24.0
Burkina Faso 35.2 30.9 28.9 29.9 28.9
Bangladesh 32.8 31.9 32.4 31.1 30.4
Chad 38.1 32.6 33.1 36.8 31.7
Kenya 32.6 33.0 31.5 29.9 30.2
Tajikistan 32.7 33.0 30.7 31.7 32.1
Congo, Dem. Rep. 31.8 33.6 29.7 29.8 28.6
Benin 31.5 33.7 33.3 34.4 37.9
Albania 34.6 34.0 33.2 31.5 32.3
Niger 36.7 34.7 35.2 35.4 34.1
Togo 33.7 34.8 33.5 33.6 32.2
Papua New Guinea 36.6 35.3 32.9 32.0 30.1
Sudan 33.5 36.3 32.8 41.5 39.2
Madagascar 35.1 36.8 36.2 33.5 32.9
Liberia 36.5 37.4 38.1 38.1 38.7
Comoros 36.1 37.4 38.0 39.5 40.9
Rwanda 41.8 37.5 37.7 39.2 40.3
Sierra Leone 45.1 38.0 45.0 46.0 46.0
Vietnam 40.2 38.1 40.6 46.3 42.1
Tonga 37.8 39.0 38.9 38.0 36.0
Nigeria 39.2 40.3 37.3 41.6 32.2
Mozambique 47.5 41.1 44.1 42.9 47.4
Bhutan 43.5 42.1 36.6 38.3 35.8
Mali 40.3 42.4 45.2 45.0 47.8
Malawi 42.9 43.1 49.0 50.0 47.7
Guinea-Bissau 46.5 45.3 57.6 58.1 50.2
Ghana 48.4 48.0 50.7 49.7 49.4
Central African Republic 47.6 50.2 47.3 48.9 47.7
Myanmar 48.2 50.2 55.3 57.4 57.0
Nepal 51.7 51.5 50.7 50.9 50.4
Ethiopia 55.4 53.9 52.0 51.6 51.2
Uganda 52.7 56.6 56.8 56.7 56.8
Burundi 61.5 58.5 55.1 54.2 53.7
Somalia 66.8 62.4 64.2 69.3 63.6
Russian Federation 16.8
Czech Republic
Iraq
Marshall Islands
Liechtenstein
Maldives
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sao Tome and Principe
Greece
Curacao
Croatia
Greenland
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Switzerland
Moldova 36.5
Luxembourg
Monaco
Samoa
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Gambia, The
Kosovo
Montenegro
Slovenia
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Libya
Spain
Lithuania
St. Martin (French part)
El Salvador
Eritrea
Kuwait
Afghanistan
Kazakhstan
Denmark
Macedonia, FYR
Lao PDR 60.6
Guam
Italy
Nicaragua
San Marino
Guatemala
Cambodia
Israel
Serbia
Kyrgyz Republic 31.8 33.6
Northern Mariana Islands
Isle of Man
Macao SAR, China
Slovak Republic
Cayman Islands
Solomon Islands
Hungary
West Bank and Gaza
South Sudan
Hong Kong SAR, China
Equatorial Guinea
Jamaica
Bermuda
Paraguay
Ireland
Peru
French Polynesia
Haiti
Belgium
Iceland
Estonia
Aruba
Tanzania
Turks and Caicos Islands
Timor-Leste
Ukraine 21.7 20.9 22.9
Djibouti 3.3
United Kingdom
Azerbaijan
Andorra
Turkmenistan 27.6 26.9 28.9
Faeroe Islands
Tuvalu
Poland
Portugal
Armenia
Germany
United States
Qatar
Uzbekistan 27.6 29.3 31.1
Romania
American Samoa
Palau
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Canada
Yemen, Rep.
New Caledonia
Lebanon

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