Country name 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
Macao SAR, China 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Singapore 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2
Bahrain 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
Brunei Darussalam 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2
Germany 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.1
French Polynesia 1.2 1.3 1.2 2.2 3.3
United Kingdom 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4
Puerto Rico 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.3
Japan 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.7 2.0
Switzerland 2.3 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.6
Trinidad and Tobago 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.3
Oman 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.4 2.5
France 3.5 2.9 2.9 2.6 2.7
Sweden 3.6 3.1 2.9 2.7 2.8
Austria 3.5 3.2 2.8 2.5 2.7
Djibouti 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.6
Norway 3.4 3.3 3.0 3.0 3.0
Malta 3.5 3.3 3.0 3.0 2.8
Bahamas, The 2.6 3.3 3.1 2.8 3.2
Denmark 3.8 3.5 3.2 3.1 3.0
Australia 4.6 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.6
Italy 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3
New Caledonia 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.9
Barbados 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.6 2.8
Antigua and Barbuda 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.1 3.7
Netherlands 4.3 4.2 3.9 3.4 3.5
South Africa 4.6 4.6 3.8 4.2 4.6
Seychelles 4.8 4.8 3.8 4.2 4.1
Botswana 4.9 4.8 5.2 5.0 4.1
Saudi Arabia 5.7 5.5 5.6 6.1 6.2
Finland 6.2 5.5 4.9 5.0 4.8
Venezuela, RB 5.5 5.6 5.4 5.5 5.3
Cyprus 6.9 6.2 5.7 5.6 5.1
St. Kitts and Nevis 6.5 6.7 7.0 6.8 5.8
Argentina 8.1 6.7 6.0 5.5 5.5
Korea, Rep. 8.2 7.3 7.1 6.4 6.2
New Zealand 6.4 7.4 7.2 7.9 7.0
Mexico 7.8 7.5 6.7 4.5 4.3
Gabon 7.3 7.6 8.3 8.5 9.1
Brazil 8.1 7.8 7.7 7.6 9.9
Jordan 7.7 8.1 7.9 6.0 5.2
Uruguay 9.2 8.5 8.8 7.4 7.9
Suriname 8.7 8.9 11.3 19.2 17.0
Peru 9.1 8.9 9.0 9.5 9.7
Panama 9.8 9.3 8.4 8.1 7.9
Chile 8.7 9.9 9.9 9.2 9.4
Algeria 11.4 10.2 12.1 12.1 10.1
Namibia 9.8 10.7 7.7 8.3 11.3
Congo, Rep. 12.9 11.3 11.5 11.2 10.3
Swaziland 10.4 11.4 9.0 10.2 13.4
Mauritius 12.9 11.7 11.6 10.6 9.9
Thailand 12.5 12.6 12.3 8.7 9.1
Mongolia 12.9 13.1 27.2 27.9 29.3
St. Lucia 14.5 13.1 13.4 10.9 9.8
Grenada 13.4 13.1 11.2 10.6 10.1
Cuba 14.0 13.3 13.1 10.3 9.6
Dominican Republic 14.5 13.3 12.5 11.2 10.3
Cabo Verde 14.4 13.4 11.8 10.1 12.9
Costa Rica 12.3 13.4 13.3 13.0 13.4
Macedonia, FYR 8.5 13.6 17.1 11.8 13.3
Russian Federation 16.6 14.3 7.4 8.3 6.6
Malaysia 15.2 14.4 14.6 13.8 13.7
Zimbabwe 16.5 15.3 7.4 15.0 19.0
Turkey 18.1 15.8 15.6 16.1 16.0
Vanuatu 20.9 16.6 16.2 18.1 16.3
Bulgaria 17.0 16.9 12.9 11.3 13.3
Paraguay 17.0 15.8 17.8 19.6
Bolivia 16.7 17.1 16.0 16.3 17.1
Colombia 16.7 17.4 15.8 13.9 16.1
Zambia 20.6 17.4 23.8 34.1 13.6
El Salvador 17.4 17.5 14.6 14.9 15.0
Egypt, Arab Rep. 19.4 17.6 16.5 16.7 16.9
Lesotho 24.7 17.7 18.6 17.5 18.3
Indonesia 19.4 18.3 18.7 17.9 17.3
Belize 20.0 18.3 17.6 16.7 16.9
Iran, Islamic Rep. 19.1 18.5 18.7 15.3 15.5
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 21.2 18.6 19.4 14.9 11.1
Guinea 23.8 18.8 17.1 18.0 20.9
Tunisia 17.7 19.1 18.6 17.0 14.4
Romania 23.7 20.1 19.4 22.6 21.5
Senegal 19.9 20.3 18.6 20.6 19.0
Fiji 20.4 20.7 20.1 19.8 20.9
Philippines 21.9 21.0 21.8 21.6 22.0
Belarus 23.5 21.0 23.6 18.3 15.0
Ecuador 21.4 21.7 19.7 24.3 23.0
Morocco 19.3 22.2 17.6 17.0 22.0
Honduras 22.4 22.7 20.4 20.6 24.3
Ukraine 25.6 22.8 20.4 21.7 16.2
Yemen, Rep. 24.4 23.1 24.2 22.6 25.0
Dominica 25.0 23.8 22.4 21.5 21.7
China 26.7 24.2 21.4 19.4 19.5
Cameroon 24.6 24.8 27.3 20.6 23.8
Armenia 17.4 25.0 31.0 51.4 44.9
Angola 33.3 25.0 11.5 11.5 6.6
Pakistan 26.0 25.8 26.3 25.0 25.6
Sri Lanka 26.3 26.8 25.9 24.6 23.8
Papua New Guinea 30.9 27.5 25.7 28.7 33.9
Kenya 29.5 28.1 28.7 31.5 33.3
Kiribati 18.6 28.3 30.8 30.3 30.2
Georgia 31.7 28.7 52.9 58.6 65.9
India 29.0 29.4 28.7 28.7 28.3
Madagascar 28.6 29.7 29.1 28.7 23.8
Bangladesh 32.8 30.4 29.4 26.3 25.6
Nigeria 31.5 31.2 27.3 33.9 38.8
Burkina Faso 29.1 31.2 30.2 31.4 35.5
Rwanda 32.5 32.1 33.2 33.7 49.8
Turkmenistan 32.2 32.3 10.6 19.4 34.0
Azerbaijan 29.0 32.3 28.5 28.5 33.0
Togo 33.8 32.8 35.3 44.1 34.9
Syrian Arab Republic 29.8 32.8 34.4 32.2 31.1
Cote d'Ivoire 32.5 33.3 34.0 28.2 25.3
Bhutan 35.3 33.8 34.4 32.2 34.9
Benin 34.7 35.0 33.9 34.1 32.3
Chad 29.3 36.5 35.3 32.5 37.8
Tajikistan 33.3 36.6 27.4 23.3 24.0
Tonga 35.6 36.8 38.2 40.8 25.3
Uzbekistan 32.8 37.0 34.8 30.4 37.4
Kyrgyz Republic 33.5 37.0 39.0 41.0 40.9
Mauritania 29.6 37.5 37.5 38.0 36.9
Guyana 38.1 38.4 40.8 36.2 37.0
Sierra Leone 46.9 38.8 37.9 43.1 39.4
Mozambique 37.1 39.1 34.5 38.3 33.3
Niger 35.3 39.2 38.8 38.5 40.8
Albania 35.9 39.3 51.6 54.6 53.6
Comoros 41.4 39.7 39.5 39.1 37.6
Congo, Dem. Rep. 40.0 49.7 51.7 57.0
Vietnam 38.7 40.5 33.9 29.9 27.4
Sudan 40.6 41.8 40.3 41.4 35.7
Moldova 36.1 42.7 50.9 32.5 29.2
Malawi 45.0 43.7 38.8 48.9 25.1
Mali 45.5 45.1 46.1 44.5 46.4
Ghana 45.1 45.6 45.0 41.4 42.0
Central African Republic 49.3 46.0 46.9 46.4 45.0
Solomon Islands 28.9 47.0 49.0 48.2 47.7
Nepal 51.6 47.2 44.9 42.2 43.1
Tanzania 46.0 48.1 48.0 48.1 45.0
Uganda 56.6 52.8 51.1 51.5 49.9
Guinea-Bissau 60.8 54.1 49.4 55.2 55.6
Burundi 55.9 54.3 53.5 52.6 46.8
Lao PDR 61.2 58.2 61.8 57.5 57.6
Myanmar 57.3 58.8 60.5 63.0 63.0
Ethiopia 52.0 61.4 66.0 62.4 55.7
Northern Mariana Islands
Somalia 65.5
Isle of Man
Cambodia 46.5 47.7
Monaco
Marshall Islands
Jamaica 8.0 8.8
Turks and Caicos Islands
Aruba 0.5
Palau 18.5 10.6 8.3
Maldives
American Samoa
Croatia
Luxembourg
South Sudan
Lithuania
Israel
Liechtenstein
Iraq
Poland
Hong Kong SAR, China
Portugal
Greece
Bosnia and Herzegovina 35.9
Montenegro
Qatar
Eritrea 30.6 22.4 24.4
Libya
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Liberia
Czech Republic 4.7 4.7
Middle East (developing only)
Spain
Samoa
Belgium
San Marino
St. Martin (French part)
Sao Tome and Principe
Ireland
Nicaragua 21.0
Iceland
Guatemala
Hungary
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Haiti
Andorra
Kuwait
Timor-Leste
Serbia
Guam
Bermuda
Greenland
Curacao
Gambia, The
Equatorial Guinea
Tuvalu
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
United Arab Emirates
Slovak Republic
United States
Slovenia
Estonia
Kazakhstan 26.7 17.5 15.5
Afghanistan
Cayman Islands
Faeroe Islands
West Bank and Gaza 13.4
Canada
Latvia
Lebanon 7.1

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