Country name 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
Kiribati 7.4 8.8 8.4 5.8 6.9
Somalia 7.7 10.1
Vanuatu 9.4 10.2 13.3 13.2 12.9
Uganda 9.9 10.2 10.1 10.2 10.7
Ethiopia 9.7 10.3 11.6 10.9 10.9
Benin 16.7 12.1 12.4 13.4 12.8
Myanmar 13.1 12.2 10.3 9.7 11.0
Madagascar 13.3 12.9 13.7 13.2 14.8
Comoros 14.1 12.9 10.6 9.4 8.3
Burundi 13.0 13.5 17.1 16.7 19.7
Central African Republic 15.9 13.6 15.5 17.0 19.4
Dominica 16.6 14.5 14.8 16.8 18.5
Tonga 14.9 14.6 12.9 13.0 15.0
Mozambique 13.2 15.0 21.4 25.4 24.3
Chad 13.1 15.0 14.6 13.5 16.7
Nepal 15.1 15.9 15.8 16.2 16.5
Mali 15.5 16.0 15.9 15.9 14.2
Sierra Leone 13.7 16.0 19.0 12.0 11.0
Panama 20.0 16.1 18.9 16.7 16.1
Sudan 16.5 16.3 16.3 13.7 14.4
St. Lucia 18.2 17.2 17.6 18.8 20.5
Ghana 18.0 17.2 16.4 16.6 16.9
Grenada 17.5 17.7 18.9 19.4 18.0
Cabo Verde 18.0 17.8 18.7 19.3 20.8
Seychelles 18.4 17.9 15.7 16.5 15.8
Kenya 19.1 18.6 18.5 19.6 19.0
Cuba 19.2 19.1 17.5 18.0 18.3
Antigua and Barbuda 16.6 19.1 20.3 20.9 22.0
Barbados 20.6 19.6 18.7 19.2 18.5
Guinea-Bissau 15.6 19.8 13.2 14.5 16.9
Togo 21.7 19.9 20.0 21.5 24.3
Fiji 19.5 20.1 21.2 21.7 24.1
Bhutan 19.8 20.1 26.2 23.1 23.8
Senegal 20.5 20.2 20.4 21.7 20.9
Iran, Islamic Rep. 26.7 20.4 20.5 20.4 22.0
Bangladesh 20.8 20.8 20.1 20.4 20.3
Cote d'Ivoire 19.7 21.3 22.4 22.7 21.8
Malawi 21.9 21.5 24.9 24.0 27.9
Burkina Faso 20.0 21.8 23.4 22.6 23.1
Niger 20.9 21.8 18.7 17.4 17.5
Rwanda 22.7 23.1 17.8 17.1 17.4
Pakistan 22.5 23.4 24.0 24.4 23.9
Honduras 24.0 23.5 23.0 24.0 24.7
Syrian Arab Republic 23.3 23.7 20.7 21.4 25.2
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 23.4 24.3 24.7 24.7 24.7
Belize 25.0 24.5 27.6 28.5 26.5
St. Kitts and Nevis 21.7 24.7 24.8 28.6 27.8
India 25.7 25.9 25.9 25.8 26.5
Dominican Republic 19.9 26.0 22.3 27.4 34.4
Congo, Dem. Rep. 31.0 26.4 28.3 30.2 31.6
Jordan 24.6 26.6 26.2 23.9 25.2
Sri Lanka 26.2 26.6 27.4 26.7 26.8
Egypt, Arab Rep. 28.6 26.8 27.1 28.8 28.0
Guyana 24.6 27.1 30.1 29.6 29.4
Nigeria 29.9 27.2 35.3 31.8 43.6
Lesotho 29.4 27.2 31.9 30.7 32.4
Ecuador 28.8 27.2 27.0 29.6 28.9
Cyprus 28.5 27.6 27.5 27.5 26.6
France 28.4 28.1 27.7 27.6 26.9
Mongolia 27.2 28.3 28.4 28.8 38.8
Suriname 30.1 28.3 25.1 28.1 27.4
Vietnam 27.4 28.9 28.4 24.0 22.9
Morocco 32.4 29.4 30.5 30.6 30.1
Swaziland 26.0 29.5 37.1 41.1 43.8
Netherlands 32.9 30.5 28.9 29.1 29.0
Mauritania 32.9 31.1 26.8 27.2 29.7
Papua New Guinea 28.5 31.2 34.9 37.5 31.7
Zimbabwe 28.0 31.3 32.5 33.2 35.1
Turkey 27.1 31.9 32.5 33.9 34.0
Costa Rica 33.1 31.9 31.3 31.5 31.6
Mauritius 29.8 32.2 33.0 33.1 32.9
Congo, Rep. 53.9 32.6 35.8 29.9 38.0
New Zealand 34.1 32.7 30.9 29.5 29.8
Thailand 31.8 33.1 33.3 34.6 36.3
Sweden 33.8 33.4 33.2 33.1 32.8
Cameroon 36.0 33.6 30.1 29.2 29.7
Indonesia 35.8 33.7 36.3 37.3 38.3
Norway 40.6 33.8 32.9 31.4 33.0
Austria 34.6 34.3 33.7 33.5 33.2
Finland 35.1 34.3 34.8 35.0 35.3
Singapore 33.4 34.4 34.0 35.2 33.9
Philippines 35.1 34.6 34.4 35.2 34.9
Guinea 34.6 32.3 33.7 33.9
Mexico 35.3 34.9 38.0 32.1 29.4
Tunisia 37.5 35.0 33.6 35.0 35.1
Bolivia 34.8 35.1 33.0 34.0 34.4
Uruguay 35.9 36.2 35.8 34.2 33.7
Georgia 39.7 36.7 37.9 37.5 39.1
Chile 37.6 37.0 38.0 43.1 41.8
Australia 37.3 37.0 34.6 33.1 31.4
Korea, Rep. 36.1 37.2 38.1 38.4 37.7
Colombia 35.5 37.3 36.0 37.6 38.2
Argentina 39.3 37.4 37.8 38.5 42.3
Japan 38.2 37.8 37.3 37.6 37.8
Saudi Arabia 41.4 37.8 40.1 38.6 42.4
Namibia 39.5 38.0 32.4 35.7 36.5
Malaysia 38.5 38.5 38.5 38.4 39.8
Trinidad and Tobago 43.9 39.1 41.3 40.4 43.6
Tajikistan 42.3 40.2 42.7 39.2 36.2
China 42.6 43.4 43.2 43.4 42.4
Bahrain 48.5 43.5 44.0 42.0 42.5
South Africa 43.6 43.9 41.7 41.5 40.7
Albania 43.3 44.2 45.8 46.3 44.8
Brazil 45.3 45.2 45.9 43.6 42.7
Gabon 66.5 47.5 48.8 35.9 41.7
Algeria 53.6 48.1 46.4 45.3 45.5
Venezuela, RB 50.8 49.3 50.3 51.3 57.1
Zambia 46.8 49.4 45.5 46.8 52.5
Angola 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 33.3
Oman 59.3 51.3 56.8 46.4 49.1
Brunei Darussalam 71.8 58.8 59.5 52.3 59.8
Malta 59.2 59.8 57.8 57.1 57.4
Botswana 61.2 62.3 62.2 65.5 64.9
Bulgaria 62.8 65.1 59.5 58.1 57.6
Puerto Rico 82.1 82.0 83.7 84.4 82.7
St. Martin (French part)
Gambia, The
Luxembourg
Macao SAR, China
Maldives
Solomon Islands
Cambodia
Taiwan, China
Lithuania
Greece
Marshall Islands
Isle of Man
Liechtenstein
Spain
Libya
Equatorial Guinea
Liberia
Timor-Leste
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Ukraine 47.1 47.7 48.4
Moldova 39.2
El Salvador
Monaco
Israel
Faeroe Islands
Slovak Republic
Montenegro
Ireland
Djibouti 20.6
Iceland
Canada
Hungary
Afghanistan
Switzerland
Lebanon
Tanzania
Latvia
American Samoa
Estonia
Tuvalu
New Caledonia
United Kingdom
Lao PDR 13.4
Czech Republic
Nicaragua
West Bank and Gaza
Kyrgyz Republic
Macedonia, FYR
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bahamas, The 17.9
Northern Mariana Islands
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Kuwait
Slovenia
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Azerbaijan
Cayman Islands
South Sudan
Palau
Iraq
Bermuda
Aruba
Kazakhstan
Armenia
Paraguay
Eritrea
Peru
Hong Kong SAR, China
Jamaica
Haiti
Poland
Croatia
Portugal
Curacao
Guam
Andorra
Turkmenistan 38.6 38.8 33.8
Guatemala
Qatar
Denmark
Romania
Turks and Caicos Islands
Russian Federation 50.2
Greenland
Belgium
United Arab Emirates
Samoa
United States
San Marino
Uzbekistan 38.3 35.8 32.6
Sao Tome and Principe
Germany
Italy
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Belarus
Yemen, Rep.
Serbia
French Polynesia

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