Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Kiribati 8.8 8.4 5.8 6.9 7.6
Somalia 10.1
Vanuatu 10.2 13.3 13.2 12.9 14.1
Uganda 10.2 10.1 10.2 10.7 11.1
Ethiopia 10.3 11.6 10.9 10.9 9.8
Benin 12.1 12.4 13.4 12.8 12.5
Myanmar 12.2 10.3 9.7 11.0 10.5
Madagascar 12.9 13.7 13.2 14.8 12.8
Comoros 12.9 10.6 9.4 8.3 8.3
Burundi 13.5 17.1 16.7 19.7 19.0
Central African Republic 13.6 15.5 17.0 19.4 20.4
Dominica 14.5 14.8 16.8 18.5 18.6
Tonga 14.6 12.9 13.0 15.0 13.9
Mozambique 15.0 21.4 25.4 24.3 18.4
Chad 15.0 14.6 13.5 16.7 17.7
Nepal 15.9 15.8 16.2 16.5 16.2
Sierra Leone 16.0 19.0 12.0 11.0 19.2
Mali 16.1 17.4 15.8 16.8 17.2
Panama 16.1 18.9 16.7 16.1 15.1
Sudan 16.3 16.3 13.7 14.4 15.3
St. Lucia 17.2 17.6 18.8 20.5 18.1
Ghana 17.2 16.4 16.6 16.9 16.9
Grenada 17.7 18.9 19.4 18.0 18.0
Cabo Verde 17.8 18.7 19.3 20.8 30.1
Seychelles 17.9 15.7 16.5 15.8 16.3
Kenya 18.6 18.5 19.6 19.0 19.0
Cuba 19.1 17.5 18.0 18.3 18.6
Antigua and Barbuda 19.1 20.3 20.9 22.0 20.1
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 19.8 20.2 20.5 20.7 19.0
Guinea-Bissau 19.8 13.2 14.5 16.9 18.6
Togo 19.9 20.0 21.5 24.3 22.5
Fiji 20.1 21.2 21.7 24.1 24.0
Bhutan 20.1 26.2 23.1 23.8 24.9
Senegal 20.2 20.4 21.7 20.9 22.2
Bangladesh 20.8 20.1 20.4 20.3 20.7
Cote d'Ivoire 21.3 22.4 22.7 21.8 26.3
Malawi 21.5 24.9 24.0 27.9 28.9
St. Kitts and Nevis 21.6 22.6 27.1 26.7 28.5
Burkina Faso 21.8 23.4 22.6 23.1 21.2
Niger 21.8 18.7 17.4 17.5 16.2
Rwanda 23.1 17.8 17.1 17.4 24.6
Pakistan 23.4 24.0 24.4 23.9 25.2
Honduras 23.5 23.0 24.0 24.7 26.4
Syrian Arab Republic 23.7 20.7 21.4 25.2 25.5
Belize 24.5 27.6 28.5 26.5 22.2
Iran, Islamic Rep. 25.8 25.8 25.4 26.8 33.5
India 25.9 25.9 25.8 26.5 26.5
Dominican Republic 26.0 22.3 27.4 34.4 34.0
Congo, Dem. Rep. 26.4 28.3 30.2 31.6 29.0
Jordan 26.6 26.2 23.9 25.2 26.2
Sri Lanka 26.6 27.4 26.7 26.8 26.0
Egypt, Arab Rep. 26.8 27.1 28.8 28.0 28.7
Guyana 27.1 30.1 29.6 29.4 24.9
Nigeria 27.2 35.3 31.8 43.6 45.3
Lesotho 27.2 31.9 30.7 32.4 34.1
Ecuador 27.2 27.0 29.6 28.9 29.9
Cyprus 27.6 27.5 27.5 26.6 25.9
France 28.1 27.7 27.6 26.9 26.9
Mongolia 28.3 28.4 28.8 38.8 42.5
Suriname 28.3 25.1 28.1 27.4 24.2
Vietnam 28.9 28.4 24.0 22.9 22.7
Morocco 29.4 30.5 30.6 30.1 30.4
Swaziland 29.5 37.1 41.1 43.8 43.2
Netherlands 30.5 29.0 29.2 29.1 29.0
Mauritania 31.1 26.8 27.2 29.7 28.8
Papua New Guinea 31.2 34.9 37.5 31.7 32.4
Zimbabwe 31.3 32.5 33.2 35.1 33.1
Turkey 31.9 32.5 33.9 34.0 32.2
Costa Rica 31.9 31.3 31.5 31.6 29.9
Mauritius 32.2 33.0 33.1 32.9 32.8
Congo, Rep. 32.6 35.8 29.9 38.0 40.6
New Zealand 32.7 30.9 29.5 29.8 28.6
Thailand 33.1 33.3 34.6 36.3 37.2
Sweden 33.4 33.2 33.1 32.8 31.6
Cameroon 33.6 30.1 29.2 29.7 29.5
Indonesia 33.7 36.3 37.3 38.3 39.1
Norway 33.8 32.9 31.4 33.0 33.2
Austria 34.3 33.7 33.5 33.2 33.4
Finland 34.3 34.8 35.0 35.3 33.6
Singapore 34.4 34.0 35.2 33.9 32.3
Philippines 34.6 34.4 35.2 34.9 34.5
Guinea 34.6 32.3 33.7 33.9 33.3
Mexico 34.9 38.0 32.1 29.4 28.4
Tunisia 35.0 33.6 35.0 35.1 33.6
Bolivia 35.1 33.0 34.0 34.4 34.8
Uruguay 36.2 35.8 34.2 33.7 34.6
Georgia 36.7 37.9 37.5 39.1 33.1
Chile 37.0 38.0 43.1 41.8 41.5
Australia 37.0 34.6 33.1 31.4 31.3
Korea, Rep. 37.2 38.1 38.4 37.7 38.2
Colombia 37.3 36.0 37.6 38.2 37.9
Argentina 37.4 37.8 38.5 42.3 36.0
Japan 37.8 37.3 37.6 37.8 38.1
Saudi Arabia 37.8 40.1 38.6 42.4 48.8
Namibia 38.0 32.4 35.7 36.5 31.5
Trinidad and Tobago 39.1 41.3 40.4 43.6 47.2
Malaysia 39.2 38.5 38.4 39.8 42.2
Tajikistan 40.2 42.7 39.2 36.2 37.6
China 43.4 43.2 43.4 42.4 40.9
Bahrain 43.5 44.0 42.0 42.5 45.7
South Africa 43.9 41.7 41.5 40.7 40.1
Albania 44.2 45.8 46.3 44.8 48.2
Brazil 45.2 45.9 43.6 42.7 38.7
Algeria 48.1 46.4 45.3 45.5 48.2
Venezuela, RB 49.3 50.3 51.3 57.1 60.6
Zambia 49.4 45.5 46.8 52.5 51.3
Oman 51.3 56.8 46.4 49.1 54.1
United Arab Emirates 52.2 54.7 53.0 55.1 58.9
Brunei Darussalam 58.8 59.5 52.3 59.8 61.6
Malta 59.8 57.8 57.1 57.4 55.9
Botswana 62.3 62.2 65.5 64.9 61.0
Bulgaria 65.1 59.5 58.1 57.6 49.2
Puerto Rico 82.0 83.7 84.4 82.7 83.2
Barbados
Macedonia, FYR 44.5
Gambia, The
Cayman Islands
Canada
Spain
Ireland
Liberia
Maldives
Sao Tome and Principe
Iraq
Slovak Republic
Lithuania
St. Martin (French part)
Marshall Islands
Kazakhstan
Russian Federation 50.2 48.4
Macao SAR, China
Croatia
Iceland
Samoa
Hungary
Belarus 47.1
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Greenland
Moldova 39.2 36.7
Luxembourg
Monaco
Greece
Cambodia
Armenia 52.0
Montenegro
Switzerland 31.3
Hong Kong SAR, China
Libya
Poland
Israel
Qatar
Portugal
Liechtenstein
Estonia
Romania 49.9
Isle of Man
Belgium
Curacao
San Marino
New Caledonia 23.3
Djibouti 20.6 22.0
Haiti
Serbia
Nicaragua
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Solomon Islands 5.0
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Italy 30.6
Slovenia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bahamas, The 17.9 16.4
Northern Mariana Islands
South Sudan
Czech Republic
Azerbaijan 32.9
West Bank and Gaza
El Salvador 27.2
Eritrea
Aruba
Turks and Caicos Islands
Germany
Kuwait
Gabon
French Polynesia
Angola
Andorra
Tanzania 17.7
United Kingdom 31.6
Timor-Leste
Faroe Islands
American Samoa
Denmark 26.1
Equatorial Guinea
Palau
Turkmenistan 38.6 38.8 33.8 29.6
Bermuda
Tuvalu
Guatemala
Ukraine 47.1 47.7 48.4 44.6
Paraguay
Peru
United States
Jamaica
Uzbekistan 38.3 35.8 32.6 33.0
Guam
Kyrgyz Republic 35.0
Lao PDR 13.4 14.5
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Latvia
Yemen, Rep. 34.3
Afghanistan
Lebanon

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