Country name 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
Solomon Islands 5.0 15.7 13.4 12.2 14.6
Kiribati 7.6 11.8 9.1 9.9 8.9
Comoros 8.3 9.4 11.4 12.0 13.6
Ethiopia 9.8 7.6 6.3 7.8 8.6
Myanmar 10.5 9.8 9.4 8.9 8.6
Uganda 11.1 12.4 13.2 13.1 13.9
Benin 12.5 12.0 12.7 12.2 13.3
Madagascar 12.8 13.1 12.5 11.9 9.7
Tonga 13.9 12.0 12.7 12.0 21.0
Vanuatu 14.1 12.7 10.9 10.0 12.7
Lao PDR 14.5 16.8 17.8 17.7 18.1
Panama 15.1 16.8 16.7 17.8 17.4
Sudan 15.3 12.6 12.2 12.6 10.4
Mali 15.9 16.9 15.8 16.3 18.9
Niger 16.2 17.6 17.9 17.9 17.3
Nepal 16.2 17.4 20.4 20.7 21.7
Seychelles 16.3 18.1 18.2 18.8 19.5
Bahamas, The 16.4 18.4 18.2 15.1 17.2
Ghana 16.9 17.0 17.4 27.8 27.7
Tanzania 17.7 16.9 16.2 15.6 15.1
Chad 17.7 13.3 13.4 14.1 11.9
Grenada 18.0 20.0 19.8 18.9 19.6
St. Lucia 18.1 18.9 20.0 21.0 19.8
Mozambique 18.4 14.6 16.7 13.1 15.2
Guinea-Bissau 18.6 9.8 10.7 10.1 11.6
Dominica 18.6 18.7 20.3 20.6 20.3
Cuba 18.6 17.7 17.8 17.5 20.5
Burundi 19.0 19.6 21.2 22.4 22.5
Kenya 19.0 19.7 18.4 16.9 17.2
Sierra Leone 19.2 35.7 41.0 33.2 40.4
Antigua and Barbuda 20.1 20.9 19.4 18.2 18.0
Central African Republic 20.4 21.3 21.1 21.9 22.1
Bangladesh 20.7 21.7 22.5 23.8 24.3
Barbados 20.8 19.6 17.2 16.5 16.3
Burkina Faso 21.2 20.2 21.2 20.6 22.0
Djibouti 22.0 21.7 17.1 15.2 14.1
Senegal 22.2 22.2 24.2 23.5 24.0
Belize 22.2 21.8 21.7 21.9 20.6
Togo 22.5 25.2 23.8 20.7 21.2
Vietnam 22.7 23.8 27.3 28.9 28.9
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 22.9 23.5 24.3 25.3 26.2
New Caledonia 23.3 24.1 20.6 20.3 19.5
Fiji 24.0 24.3 25.2 25.9 25.6
Suriname 24.2 18.2 17.0 16.4 28.4
Rwanda 24.6 20.9 18.7 18.3 21.2
Bhutan 24.9 25.8 27.7 29.5 30.0
Guyana 24.9 32.0 29.0 35.7 36.7
Pakistan 25.2 25.4 25.0 24.7 24.3
Syrian Arab Republic 25.5 23.3 18.8 20.1 20.0
Cyprus 25.9 26.7 25.6 24.7 23.2
Sri Lanka 26.0 25.6 25.6 25.6 26.2
Denmark 26.1 25.9 26.0 24.9 25.0
Jordan 26.2 24.4 27.5 27.4 29.1
Cote d'Ivoire 26.3 24.6 24.4 22.8 21.0
Honduras 26.4 27.3 29.6 30.1 28.8
India 26.5 25.4 25.8 25.5 26.4
France 26.9 26.7 26.2 25.2 24.4
El Salvador 27.2 27.3 30.2 30.0 29.9
Mexico 28.4 28.0 28.1 31.9 31.0
New Zealand 28.6 28.0 27.9 27.9 28.7
Egypt, Arab Rep. 28.7 33.2 33.3 33.1 32.8
Iran, Islamic Rep. 28.7 28.7 29.2 38.2 38.6
Mauritania 28.8 24.1 23.4 24.6 24.7
Malawi 28.9 26.9 31.5 24.1 21.7
Netherlands 28.9 28.5 27.5 27.1 26.7
St. Kitts and Nevis 28.9 26.5 26.2 25.2 23.2
Peru 29.1 28.6 29.5 31.1 32.9
Cameroon 29.5 29.5 25.8 32.2 32.3
Turkmenistan 29.6 31.0 11.9 64.0 46.7
Ecuador 29.9 30.2 31.3 27.4 26.4
Costa Rica 29.9 30.1 30.9 30.2 29.6
Cabo Verde 30.1 30.3 32.4 22.5 30.6
Morocco 30.4 28.6 29.8 29.8 27.5
Italy 30.6 29.8 29.4 28.9 28.9
Switzerland 31.3 30.9 30.1 29.7 30.5
Australia 31.3 30.2 29.5 29.2 29.1
United Kingdom 31.4 30.8 30.1 29.4 29.8
Namibia 31.5 28.1 27.7 25.3 26.9
Sweden 31.6 30.2 28.8 28.4 29.5
Turkey 32.2 32.7 32.4 31.1 33.2
Singapore 32.3 34.1 34.0 34.1 33.5
Papua New Guinea 32.4 36.5 41.7 40.5 33.8
Mauritius 32.8 33.1 33.2 33.0 32.3
Azerbaijan 32.9 31.4 40.0 33.8 28.2
Uzbekistan 33.0 36.6 35.8 34.5 26.4
Georgia 33.1 37.1 23.9 22.0 10.3
Zimbabwe 33.1 37.4 40.9 33.3 32.4
Norway 33.2 32.0 31.7 31.4 32.0
Guinea 33.3 31.6 27.7 29.4 26.0
Angola 33.3 37.5 53.8 51.3 67.0
Austria 33.4 33.3 32.7 31.9 32.0
Tunisia 33.6 33.1 32.8 32.4 33.6
Finland 33.6 30.4 30.1 30.8 32.2
Dominican Republic 34.0 35.0 34.0 33.8 34.4
Lesotho 34.1 39.1 41.8 37.8 39.8
Yemen, Rep. 34.3 30.7 27.6 25.4 25.1
Philippines 34.5 34.0 32.8 32.7 32.5
Uruguay 34.6 35.5 32.8 29.7 28.0
Bolivia 34.8 33.7 33.6 32.2 31.6
Kyrgyz Republic 35.0 35.5 37.8 32.0 25.5
Argentina 36.0 32.7 30.7 29.2 29.0
Moldova 36.7 33.3 31.5 44.0 38.4
Thailand 37.2 38.7 38.1 40.5 40.6
Tajikistan 37.6 36.9 46.1 46.5 41.0
Colombia 37.9 37.1 35.0 36.0 31.4
Japan 38.1 37.7 36.5 35.1 33.6
Korea, Rep. 38.2 39.2 37.9 38.2 38.0
Brazil 38.7 36.2 38.7 41.6 40.0
Indonesia 39.1 40.4 39.6 39.7 40.6
South Africa 40.1 38.4 36.4 35.5 35.0
Congo, Rep. 40.6 36.0 35.5 35.3 45.5
China 40.9 41.4 43.0 46.1 46.1
Chile 41.5 40.1 38.1 35.8 35.6
Malaysia 42.2 42.1 41.1 40.1 40.0
Mongolia 42.5 38.1 36.9 32.5 33.5
Gabon 43.0 44.6 43.3 45.2 52.6
Swaziland 43.2 42.2 42.1 42.3 42.2
Macedonia, FYR 44.5 35.6 39.1 35.0 30.4
Ukraine 44.6 50.5 50.9 37.7 47.5
Nigeria 45.3 45.8 53.0 42.7 32.9
Bahrain 45.7 39.9 37.2 37.9 37.4
Belarus 47.1 49.9 47.8 38.4 36.0
Trinidad and Tobago 47.2 46.5 43.8 43.7 48.7
Algeria 48.2 53.2 49.7 48.6 49.0
Albania 48.2 42.7 23.3 22.9 21.7
Russian Federation 48.4 47.6 43.0 44.6 44.7
Saudi Arabia 48.8 48.5 51.3 47.6 47.5
Bulgaria 49.2 43.8 43.5 37.2 34.8
Romania 49.9 45.1 44.0 42.1 46.3
Zambia 51.3 51.0 49.0 41.9 42.8
Armenia 52.0 49.2 39.4 26.9 37.0
Oman 54.1 49.4 48.8 45.7 45.1
Malta 55.9 55.2 51.6 49.9 51.3
Venezuela, RB 60.6 56.4 54.4 51.6 44.1
Botswana 61.0 58.9 55.8 53.0 47.0
Brunei Darussalam 61.6 59.6 60.4 57.2 53.8
Puerto Rico 83.2 82.4 86.0 87.6 88.3
United States
Jamaica 37.1 36.6
Nicaragua 21.8
Equatorial Guinea
Curacao
Ireland
Faeroe Islands
Somalia
Northern Mariana Islands
Marshall Islands
Guatemala
Aruba 16.7
Middle East (developing only)
Andorra
Croatia
Slovenia
Palau 12.6 8.7 8.0
Czech Republic 38.9 38.7
Lithuania
Hong Kong SAR, China
Congo, Dem. Rep. 20.0 16.6 16.5 16.0
Greece
Kuwait
Israel
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Guam
Haiti
Turks and Caicos Islands
Poland
United Arab Emirates
Portugal
Eritrea 12.0 15.7 14.2
South Sudan
Germany 36.8 35.8 33.7 33.4
Estonia
Liechtenstein
Qatar
Spain
St. Martin (French part)
Kazakhstan 44.6 39.4 40.0
French Polynesia
Montenegro
Bosnia and Herzegovina 25.9
Monaco
Bermuda
Liberia
Belgium
Libya
Maldives
Sao Tome and Principe
Hungary
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Timor-Leste
Gambia, The
Greenland
Serbia
Isle of Man
Cayman Islands
Iraq
Canada
Tuvalu
Cambodia 13.0 14.4
Macao SAR, China 20.5 19.1 17.1 16.0
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
American Samoa
Slovak Republic
Iceland
Luxembourg
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Samoa
Afghanistan
San Marino
West Bank and Gaza 33.4
Paraguay 39.0 37.6 35.3 34.9
Latvia
Lebanon 24.9

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