Country name 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
Ethiopia 9.8 7.6 6.3 7.8 8.6
Palau 12.6 8.7 8.0
Myanmar 10.5 9.8 9.4 8.9 8.6
Kiribati 7.6 11.8 9.1 9.9 8.9
Vanuatu 14.1 12.7 10.9 10.0 12.7
Guinea-Bissau 18.6 9.8 10.7 10.1 11.6
Madagascar 12.8 13.1 12.5 11.9 9.7
Comoros 8.3 9.4 11.4 12.0 13.6
Tonga 13.9 12.0 12.7 12.0 21.0
Solomon Islands 5.0 15.7 13.4 12.2 14.6
Benin 12.5 12.0 12.7 12.2 13.3
Sudan 15.3 12.6 12.2 12.6 10.4
Cambodia 13.0 14.4
Uganda 11.1 12.4 13.2 13.1 13.9
Mozambique 18.4 14.6 16.7 13.1 15.2
Chad 17.7 13.3 13.4 14.1 11.9
Bahamas, The 16.4 18.4 18.2 15.1 17.2
Djibouti 22.0 21.7 17.1 15.2 14.1
Tanzania 17.7 16.9 16.2 15.6 15.1
Eritrea 12.0 15.7 14.2
Mali 15.9 16.9 15.8 16.3 18.9
Suriname 24.2 18.2 17.0 16.4 28.4
Congo, Dem. Rep. 20.0 16.6 16.5 16.0
Barbados 20.8 19.6 17.2 16.5 16.3
Kenya 19.0 19.7 18.4 16.9 17.2
Macao SAR, China 20.5 19.1 17.1 16.0
Cuba 18.6 17.7 17.8 17.5 20.5
Lao PDR 14.5 16.8 17.8 17.7 18.1
Panama 15.1 16.8 16.7 17.8 17.4
Niger 16.2 17.6 17.9 17.9 17.3
Antigua and Barbuda 20.1 20.9 19.4 18.2 18.0
Rwanda 24.6 20.9 18.7 18.3 21.2
Seychelles 16.3 18.1 18.2 18.8 19.5
Grenada 18.0 20.0 19.8 18.9 19.6
Syrian Arab Republic 25.5 23.3 18.8 20.1 20.0
New Caledonia 23.3 24.1 20.6 20.3 19.5
Burkina Faso 21.2 20.2 21.2 20.6 22.0
Dominica 18.6 18.7 20.3 20.6 20.3
Nepal 16.2 17.4 20.4 20.7 21.7
Togo 22.5 25.2 23.8 20.7 21.2
St. Lucia 18.1 18.9 20.0 21.0 19.8
Belize 22.2 21.8 21.7 21.9 20.6
Central African Republic 20.4 21.3 21.1 21.9 22.1
Georgia 33.1 37.1 23.9 22.0 10.3
Burundi 19.0 19.6 21.2 22.4 22.5
Cabo Verde 30.1 30.3 32.4 22.5 30.6
Cote d'Ivoire 26.3 24.6 24.4 22.8 21.0
Albania 48.2 42.7 23.3 22.9 21.7
Senegal 22.2 22.2 24.2 23.5 24.0
Bangladesh 20.7 21.7 22.5 23.8 24.3
Malawi 28.9 26.9 31.5 24.1 21.7
Mauritania 28.8 24.1 23.4 24.6 24.7
Cyprus 25.9 26.7 25.6 24.7 23.2
Pakistan 25.2 25.4 25.0 24.7 24.3
Denmark 26.1 25.9 26.0 24.9 25.0
St. Kitts and Nevis 28.9 26.5 26.2 25.2 23.2
France 26.9 26.7 26.2 25.2 24.4
Namibia 31.5 28.1 27.7 25.3 26.9
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 22.9 23.5 24.3 25.3 26.2
Yemen, Rep. 34.3 30.7 27.6 25.4 25.1
India 26.5 25.4 25.8 25.5 26.4
Sri Lanka 26.0 25.6 25.6 25.6 26.2
Fiji 24.0 24.3 25.2 25.9 25.6
Armenia 52.0 49.2 39.4 26.9 37.0
Netherlands 28.9 28.5 27.5 27.1 26.7
Ecuador 29.9 30.2 31.3 27.4 26.4
Jordan 26.2 24.4 27.5 27.4 29.1
Ghana 16.9 17.0 17.4 27.8 27.7
New Zealand 28.6 28.0 27.9 27.9 28.7
Sweden 31.6 30.2 28.8 28.4 29.5
Vietnam 22.7 23.8 27.3 28.9 28.9
Italy 30.6 29.8 29.4 28.9 28.9
Australia 31.3 30.2 29.5 29.2 29.1
Argentina 36.0 32.7 30.7 29.2 29.0
United Kingdom 31.4 30.8 30.1 29.4 29.8
Guinea 33.3 31.6 27.7 29.4 26.0
Bhutan 24.9 25.8 27.7 29.5 30.0
Uruguay 34.6 35.5 32.8 29.7 28.0
Switzerland 31.3 30.9 30.1 29.7 30.5
Morocco 30.4 28.6 29.8 29.8 27.5
El Salvador 27.2 27.3 30.2 30.0 29.9
Honduras 26.4 27.3 29.6 30.1 28.8
Costa Rica 29.9 30.1 30.9 30.2 29.6
Finland 33.6 30.4 30.1 30.8 32.2
Turkey 32.2 32.7 32.4 31.1 33.2
Peru 29.1 28.6 29.5 31.1 32.9
Norway 33.2 32.0 31.7 31.4 32.0
Mexico 28.4 28.0 28.1 31.9 31.0
Austria 33.4 33.3 32.7 31.9 32.0
Kyrgyz Republic 35.0 35.5 37.8 32.0 25.5
Cameroon 29.5 29.5 25.8 32.2 32.3
Bolivia 34.8 33.7 33.6 32.2 31.6
Tunisia 33.6 33.1 32.8 32.4 33.6
Mongolia 42.5 38.1 36.9 32.5 33.5
Philippines 34.5 34.0 32.8 32.7 32.5
Mauritius 32.8 33.1 33.2 33.0 32.3
Egypt, Arab Rep. 28.7 33.2 33.3 33.1 32.8
Sierra Leone 19.2 35.7 41.0 33.2 40.4
Zimbabwe 33.1 37.4 40.9 33.3 32.4
Germany 36.8 35.8 33.7 33.4
Azerbaijan 32.9 31.4 40.0 33.8 28.2
Dominican Republic 34.0 35.0 34.0 33.8 34.4
Singapore 32.3 34.1 34.0 34.1 33.5
Uzbekistan 33.0 36.6 35.8 34.5 26.4
Macedonia, FYR 44.5 35.6 39.1 35.0 30.4
Japan 38.1 37.7 36.5 35.1 33.6
Congo, Rep. 40.6 36.0 35.5 35.3 45.5
Paraguay 39.0 37.6 35.3 34.9
South Africa 40.1 38.4 36.4 35.5 35.0
Guyana 24.9 32.0 29.0 35.7 36.7
Chile 41.5 40.1 38.1 35.8 35.6
Colombia 37.9 37.1 35.0 36.0 31.4
Jamaica 37.1 36.6
Bulgaria 49.2 43.8 43.5 37.2 34.8
Ukraine 44.6 50.5 50.9 37.7 47.5
Lesotho 34.1 39.1 41.8 37.8 39.8
Bahrain 45.7 39.9 37.2 37.9 37.4
Korea, Rep. 38.2 39.2 37.9 38.2 38.0
Iran, Islamic Rep. 28.7 28.7 29.2 38.2 38.6
Belarus 47.1 49.9 47.8 38.4 36.0
Czech Republic 38.9 38.7
Kazakhstan 44.6 39.4 40.0
Indonesia 39.1 40.4 39.6 39.7 40.6
Malaysia 42.2 42.1 41.1 40.1 40.0
Thailand 37.2 38.7 38.1 40.5 40.6
Papua New Guinea 32.4 36.5 41.7 40.5 33.8
Brazil 38.7 36.2 38.7 41.6 40.0
Zambia 51.3 51.0 49.0 41.9 42.8
Romania 49.9 45.1 44.0 42.1 46.3
Swaziland 43.2 42.2 42.1 42.3 42.2
Nigeria 45.3 45.8 53.0 42.7 32.9
Trinidad and Tobago 47.2 46.5 43.8 43.7 48.7
Moldova 36.7 33.3 31.5 44.0 38.4
Russian Federation 48.4 47.6 43.0 44.6 44.7
Gabon 43.0 44.6 43.3 45.2 52.6
Oman 54.1 49.4 48.8 45.7 45.1
China 40.9 41.4 43.0 46.1 46.1
Tajikistan 37.6 36.9 46.1 46.5 41.0
Saudi Arabia 48.8 48.5 51.3 47.6 47.5
Algeria 48.2 53.2 49.7 48.6 49.0
Malta 55.9 55.2 51.6 49.9 51.3
Angola 33.3 37.5 53.8 51.3 67.0
Venezuela, RB 60.6 56.4 54.4 51.6 44.1
Botswana 61.0 58.9 55.8 53.0 47.0
Brunei Darussalam 61.6 59.6 60.4 57.2 53.8
Turkmenistan 29.6 31.0 11.9 64.0 46.7
Puerto Rico 83.2 82.4 86.0 87.6 88.3
Estonia
Luxembourg
Faeroe Islands
Bosnia and Herzegovina 25.9
Equatorial Guinea
Liberia
French Polynesia
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Poland
Timor-Leste
Portugal
Tuvalu
West Bank and Gaza 33.4
American Samoa
Northern Mariana Islands
Canada
Gambia, The
Marshall Islands
Nicaragua 21.8
Bermuda
Greece
Isle of Man
Samoa
Liechtenstein
San Marino
Libya
Sao Tome and Principe
Andorra
Greenland
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Curacao
St. Martin (French part)
Serbia
Monaco
Croatia
Iceland
Guam
Iraq
Guatemala
Maldives
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Ireland
Slovak Republic
Belgium
Slovenia
Israel
Haiti
Lithuania
Somalia
Turks and Caicos Islands
Hong Kong SAR, China
Aruba 16.7
South Sudan
United Arab Emirates
Spain
United States
Montenegro
Middle East (developing only)
Hungary
Kuwait
Cayman Islands
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Qatar
Afghanistan
Latvia
Lebanon 24.9

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