Country name 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985
Nepal 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.43 0.45
Benin 0.46 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.48
Guinea-Bissau 0.46 0.46 0.49 0.50 0.51
Bhutan 0.47 0.49 0.50 0.53
Guinea 0.49 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.46
Afghanistan 0.24 0.50 0.48 0.49
Pakistan 0.51 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.52
Gambia, The 0.53 0.54 0.56 0.59 0.61
Somalia 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.54 0.52
Central African Republic 0.57 0.57 0.53 0.56 0.56
Oman 0.54 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.76
Ethiopia 0.55 0.57 0.60 0.62 0.65
Niger 0.58 0.59 0.60 0.58 0.59
Mali 0.58 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.61
Burkina Faso 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Burundi 0.64 0.61 0.63 0.65 0.68
Morocco 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.63 0.64
Togo 0.64 0.64 0.65 0.64 0.62
Mauritania 0.57 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.69
Sierra Leone 0.68 0.66 0.66 0.67 0.67
Senegal 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.68 0.68
Cote d'Ivoire 0.66 0.68 0.68 0.69 0.70
India 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.69 0.70
Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.71 0.73 0.77 0.79
Bangladesh 0.71 0.72 0.61 0.70 0.69
Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.71 0.72 0.74 0.75 0.65
Djibouti 0.73 0.74 0.74 0.73
Egypt, Arab Rep. 0.72 0.73 0.75 0.77 0.79
St. Kitts and Nevis 0.95 0.74 0.98 0.86
Uganda 0.75 0.75 0.77 0.78 0.79
Mozambique 0.74 0.75 0.74 0.75 0.77
Algeria 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.77 0.79
Tunisia 0.73 0.76 0.78 0.80 0.82
Solomon Islands 0.76 0.78 0.79
Malawi 0.77 0.78 0.80 0.81 0.81
Nigeria 0.80 0.79 0.78 0.78 0.81
Papua New Guinea 0.77 0.80 0.82
Syrian Arab Republic 0.78 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.86
Ghana 0.83 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.80
China 0.85 0.83 0.82 0.83 0.83
Cameroon 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84
Turkey 0.84 0.86 0.88 0.90
Lao PDR 0.85 0.86 0.75 0.79
Guatemala 0.85 0.87 0.85 0.84
Angola 0.87 0.83
Haiti 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.87
Bahrain 0.89 0.88 0.94 0.96 1.00
Zambia 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.90
Indonesia 0.88 0.90 0.94 0.95 0.95
Myanmar 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.90 0.91
Qatar 0.97 0.92 0.94 0.96 0.98
Rwanda 0.92 0.92 0.94 0.94 0.95
Guyana 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.97
Zimbabwe 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.94 0.95
Peru 0.95 0.94 0.96
Tanzania 0.91 0.94 0.96 0.98 1.00
Iraq 0.91 0.94 0.92 0.89 0.86
Paraguay 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94
Lebanon 0.94 0.92 0.92
Kenya 0.93 0.94 0.94 0.95 0.96
Grenada 0.95 0.94 0.95 0.95 0.94
Congo, Rep. 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.95 0.96
Cuba 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.94
Chile 0.97 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.96
Suriname 0.95 0.98
Cabo Verde 0.96 0.96 0.94 0.97 0.97
Tonga 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.99
Madagascar 0.96 0.96 0.88 0.93
Panama 0.96 0.96 0.95 0.95 0.95
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.96 0.94
Sri Lanka 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.96
Barbados 1.00 0.97 0.94 1.00 0.96
Costa Rica 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97
Bermuda 0.96 0.97 0.98 1.02 1.01
Mongolia 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.97 0.97
New Zealand 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98
Hong Kong SAR, China 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98
Gabon 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98
Albania 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.97 0.98
Mexico 0.98 0.98 0.96 0.96 0.97
El Salvador 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.99
Brunei Darussalam 0.97 0.98 0.97 0.97
France 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98
Mauritius 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99
United Arab Emirates 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98
Kuwait 0.94 0.98 1.01 1.01 1.00
Argentina 0.99 0.98 0.99 1.00
Dominica 1.09 0.98 0.98
Canada 1.00 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.98
Swaziland 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98
Australia 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.99
Estonia 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98
Malta 0.97 0.99 0.96 0.98 0.94
Austria 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
Spain 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
Honduras 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.01 1.01
Belgium 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01
Philippines 0.99 1.00 0.99 1.00 1.00
Italy 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Hungary 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Bulgaria 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Greece 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01
Sweden 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.01
Kiribati 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.00
Norway 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Japan 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Denmark 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Portugal 0.96 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.95
Finland 0.99 1.00 0.99 0.99 1.00
United Kingdom 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Luxembourg 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Ireland 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Trinidad and Tobago 1.02 1.01 1.03 1.01 1.02
Korea, Rep. 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Seychelles 1.01 1.01 1.02 1.04 1.04
Switzerland 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.02 1.01
Czech Republic 1.01 1.01 1.01 0.97 0.97
Cyprus 1.01 1.01 1.00 0.99 0.99
Jordan 1.01 1.01 1.03 1.03 1.05
United States 1.02 1.01 1.00 1.01 1.02
Netherlands 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.03
St. Lucia 1.08 1.02 1.02 1.00 1.00
Colombia 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.02 1.03
Samoa 1.02 1.04 1.04
Bahamas, The 1.05 1.02 1.01
Nicaragua 1.06 1.06 1.05 1.11
Botswana 1.18 1.15 1.15 1.13 1.11
Lesotho 1.39 1.34 1.31 1.28 1.27
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Cayman Islands
Sudan
Maldives
Montenegro
Cambodia
Thailand 0.96
Namibia
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Macedonia, FYR
Croatia
Macao SAR, China
Greenland
Eritrea
Georgia 0.98
Lithuania 0.99
Uzbekistan 0.96
Malaysia
Chad 0.38
Liechtenstein
Israel 1.01 1.02 1.03
Libya 0.93 0.93
St. Martin (French part)
Northern Mariana Islands
Dominican Republic 1.09 1.03
Liberia
Tajikistan
Brazil
Armenia
Monaco
Antigua and Barbuda 0.86
Palau
Equatorial Guinea
Slovak Republic
Venezuela, RB 1.03 1.00 0.99
Moldova 0.99
Yemen, Rep.
South Africa
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Slovenia
Bolivia 0.87 0.90 0.92
Azerbaijan
Comoros 0.72 0.76 0.90
South Sudan
Latvia
Isle of Man
Poland
Marshall Islands
Kyrgyz Republic 0.98
Curacao
Puerto Rico
Iceland 1.00 1.00
Belize
Guam
Romania
Ecuador 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.99
Russian Federation 1.00
Aruba
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Timor-Leste
Turks and Caicos Islands
Germany
Andorra 0.96
French Polynesia
Fiji 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99
Turkmenistan
San Marino
Tuvalu
Sao Tome and Principe 0.97 0.97
Ukraine
Saudi Arabia
Faroe Islands
Belarus
Uruguay 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99
Serbia
Vanuatu 0.94
Kazakhstan
Vietnam 0.92 0.95
Jamaica 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02
West Bank and Gaza
Singapore
American Samoa
New Caledonia

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