Country name 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Chad 0.50 0.53 0.55 0.59 0.61
Guinea 0.53 0.56 0.59 0.62 0.67
Benin 0.57 0.59 0.62 0.64 0.67
Ethiopia 0.58 0.57 0.59 0.61 0.66
Guinea-Bissau 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.67
Niger 0.63 0.64 0.66 0.67 0.68
Burkina Faso 0.67 0.69 0.70 0.71
Mali 0.67 0.67 0.71 0.72 0.75
Togo 0.69 0.70 0.72 0.75 0.78
Nepal 0.71 0.75 0.77
Cote d'Ivoire 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.75 0.75
Djibouti 0.75 0.75 0.76 0.72 0.74
Morocco 0.75 0.77 0.79 0.82 0.85
Egypt, Arab Rep. 0.76 0.88 0.92 0.93
Gambia, The 0.78 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.87
Senegal 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.83 0.87
Bhutan 0.80 0.82 0.83 0.85 0.87
Lao PDR 0.81 0.82 0.83 0.85 0.85
India 0.82 0.83 0.83 0.84 0.84
Eritrea 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.83
Burundi 0.85 0.84 0.81 0.78 0.79
Papua New Guinea 0.86 0.87 0.87 0.86
Cameroon 0.86 0.87 0.83 0.82 0.85
Guatemala 0.86 0.86 0.87 0.87 0.90
Nigeria 0.86 0.81 0.81
Iraq 0.86 0.83 0.83
Uganda 0.87 0.88 0.90 0.91 0.94
Mauritania 0.87 0.91 0.94 0.97 0.97
Algeria 0.89 0.90 0.91 0.91 0.92
Malawi 0.91 0.95 0.95
Syrian Arab Republic 0.91 0.91 0.93 0.92 0.93
Zambia 0.92 0.93 0.92 0.93
Tunisia 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.94
Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.94
Congo, Rep. 0.94 0.90 0.90 0.96 0.92
Tajikistan 0.95 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.93
Portugal 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.96
Haiti 0.95 0.96 0.98
Belize 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.95
Chile 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.97
Bolivia 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.98
Belarus 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.99 0.99
Madagascar 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.96
Albania 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.98
China 0.96 0.98 0.99
Indonesia 0.96 0.96 0.94 0.97 0.97
Uzbekistan 0.97 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.01
Cuba 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.96
Sao Tome and Principe 0.97 0.81 0.96
Swaziland 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.95
Oman 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.97
Paraguay 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.96
Mexico 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98
Maldives 0.97 0.97 1.01 1.01 1.00
Kyrgyz Republic 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.99 0.98
Latvia 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98
Tonga 0.97 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95
Zimbabwe 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97
El Salvador 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.95
Lithuania 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.99
Sri Lanka 0.98 0.98
Estonia 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99
Bulgaria 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.97
Brunei Darussalam 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.96
Macedonia, FYR 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.98 0.99
Netherlands 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98
Spain 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
Philippines 0.98 1.00 1.00 1.00
Grenada 0.98 0.99 0.93 0.97 0.97
Hungary 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98
Tanzania 0.98 0.99 0.99 1.00 0.99
Fiji 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.98
France 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
Canada 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Hong Kong SAR, China 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.97
Venezuela, RB 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98
Uruguay 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.98
Argentina 0.99 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98
Costa Rica 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.97
Italy 0.99 1.00 0.99 0.99 1.00
United States 0.99 1.03 1.03 0.99
Poland 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99
West Bank and Gaza 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
United Arab Emirates 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00
Belgium 0.99 0.99 0.99
Lebanon 0.99 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97
Czech Republic 0.99 1.00 1.00 0.99 1.00
Ecuador 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Austria 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
Mauritius 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99
Trinidad and Tobago 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
Germany 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
Cyprus 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Malta 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.01
Namibia 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.00
Denmark 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Colombia 1.00 0.97 1.00 1.00
Romania 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
Bahrain 1.00 0.99 1.00 0.99
New Zealand 1.00 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Kuwait 1.00 1.06 1.08 1.06 1.04
Switzerland 1.00 1.00 0.99 1.00
Australia 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.02
Slovak Republic 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.99
Norway 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Gabon 1.00 1.00 1.00
Croatia 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99
Slovenia 1.00 0.99 1.00 0.99 1.02
Ireland 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99
Kazakhstan 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.01
Japan 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Finland 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99
Guyana 1.01 1.05 1.04 0.98
Botswana 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.00
Georgia 1.01 0.99 1.00 0.99 0.99
Iceland 1.01 1.01 0.99 0.98 0.98
Greece 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.00
Mongolia 1.01 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.01
Jordan 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Sweden 1.01 1.01 1.03 1.03 1.03
Honduras 1.02 1.02 1.04 1.01 1.01
Korea, Rep. 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.01 1.01
Armenia 1.02 1.05 1.08 1.00
Seychelles 1.02 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.03
Samoa 1.02 1.03 1.05 1.00 1.02
Kiribati 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.03 0.99
Bahamas, The 1.04 1.00 1.00 0.97
Nicaragua 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.02 1.02
Qatar 1.05 1.08 0.99 1.05 1.05
Azerbaijan 1.10 0.99 0.99 1.00 0.98
Lesotho 1.14 1.11 1.11 1.10 1.05
Vanuatu 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.97
Greenland
Suriname
Dominica 1.03 1.02
South Sudan
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Monaco
New Caledonia
French Polynesia
Montenegro
St. Lucia 0.93 0.95 0.97
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Timor-Leste
Kenya 0.98 0.97 0.99
Myanmar 0.97 0.98
Equatorial Guinea 0.82
Moldova 1.00 0.99
Northern Mariana Islands
Somalia
Marshall Islands 0.99
Brazil
Curacao
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.92 0.92 0.95
Pakistan 0.68
Dominican Republic 0.97 0.98 0.97
Mozambique 0.74 0.74 0.75
Isle of Man
United Kingdom 1.00 1.00 1.00
Turks and Caicos Islands
Palau
Panama 0.97 0.97
Angola 0.82
Aruba 0.98 0.97
Andorra
Vietnam 0.95 0.93 0.95
Ghana 0.92 0.93
Guam
Comoros 0.86 0.86 0.86
Solomon Islands 0.93 0.92
Faroe Islands
South Africa 0.99 0.99 1.00 0.99
Central African Republic
Cabo Verde 0.97 0.97 0.98
Puerto Rico
St. Kitts and Nevis 0.98 1.04
Macao SAR, China
St. Martin (French part)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sudan
Barbados 0.98 0.98
Afghanistan 0.08 0.00
Jamaica 1.00 1.00
Israel 0.99 0.99
Russian Federation 0.99 0.99
Bermuda 1.00
Rwanda 0.98 0.97 0.98 0.98
Thailand 0.98 0.97 0.97
Liberia 0.65 0.75 0.74
Bangladesh
Turkey 0.92 0.91 0.91
Luxembourg 1.01 1.01
San Marino
Cayman Islands
Turkmenistan
Saudi Arabia
Tuvalu 1.04
Cambodia 0.83 0.84 0.87 0.88
Ukraine 1.00 1.00 1.00
Serbia 0.99 0.99
Malaysia
Liechtenstein
Sierra Leone 0.92
Libya 0.99
Singapore
Antigua and Barbuda
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.75 0.91
Yemen, Rep. 0.56
Peru 0.99 0.99 0.99
American Samoa

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