Country name 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Chad 0.50 0.53 0.55 0.59 0.61
Guinea 0.53 0.56 0.59 0.62 0.67
Ethiopia 0.58 0.57 0.59 0.61 0.66
Guinea-Bissau 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.67
Benin 0.57 0.59 0.62 0.64 0.67
Niger 0.63 0.64 0.66 0.67 0.68
Mali 0.67 0.67 0.71 0.72 0.75
Togo 0.69 0.70 0.72 0.75 0.78
Cote d'Ivoire 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.75 0.75
Djibouti 0.75 0.75 0.76 0.72 0.74
Morocco 0.75 0.77 0.79 0.82 0.85
Gambia, The 0.78 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.87
Bhutan 0.80 0.82 0.83 0.85 0.87
Senegal 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.83 0.87
Lao PDR 0.81 0.82 0.83 0.85 0.85
India 0.82 0.83 0.83 0.84 0.84
Cambodia 0.83 0.84 0.87 0.88
Eritrea 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.83
Burundi 0.85 0.84 0.81 0.78 0.79
Guatemala 0.86 0.86 0.87 0.87 0.90
Cameroon 0.86 0.87 0.83 0.82 0.85
Papua New Guinea 0.86 0.87 0.87 0.86
Egypt, Arab Rep. 0.76 0.88 0.92 0.93
Uganda 0.87 0.88 0.90 0.91 0.94
Congo, Rep. 0.94 0.90 0.90 0.96 0.92
Algeria 0.89 0.90 0.91 0.91 0.92
Mauritania 0.87 0.91 0.94 0.97 0.97
Syrian Arab Republic 0.91 0.91 0.93 0.92 0.93
Turkey 0.92 0.91 0.91
Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.94
St. Lucia 0.93 0.95 0.97
Tunisia 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.94
Kyrgyz Republic 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.99 0.98
Tonga 0.97 0.95 0.95 0.95 0.95
Belize 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.95
Haiti 0.95 0.96 0.98
Albania 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.98
Belarus 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.99 0.99
Chile 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.97
Bolivia 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.98
Indonesia 0.96 0.96 0.94 0.97 0.97
Cuba 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.96
Maldives 0.97 0.97 1.01 1.01 1.00
Lithuania 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.99
Swaziland 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.95
Tajikistan 0.95 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.93
Paraguay 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.96
Latvia 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98
Brunei Darussalam 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.96
Lebanon 0.99 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97
Mexico 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98
El Salvador 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.95
Rwanda 0.98 0.97 0.98 0.98
China 0.96 0.98 0.99
Vanuatu 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.97
Bulgaria 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.97
Macedonia, FYR 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.98 0.99
Poland 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99
Venezuela, RB 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98
Netherlands 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98
Hungary 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98
Fiji 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.98
Costa Rica 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.97
Estonia 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99
Oman 0.97 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.97
United Arab Emirates 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00
South Africa 0.99 0.99 1.00 0.99
Georgia 1.01 0.99 1.00 0.99 0.99
Uruguay 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.98
Azerbaijan 1.10 0.99 0.99 1.00 0.98
Spain 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
Bahrain 1.00 0.99 1.00 0.99
France 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
Tanzania 0.98 0.99 0.99 1.00 0.99
Austria 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
Ecuador 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
New Zealand 1.00 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Slovenia 1.00 0.99 1.00 0.99 1.02
Grenada 0.98 0.99 0.93 0.97 0.97
Germany 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
Trinidad and Tobago 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
Romania 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
Malta 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.01
Italy 0.99 1.00 0.99 0.99 1.00
Uzbekistan 0.97 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.01
Mauritius 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99
Croatia 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99
Gabon 1.00 1.00 1.00
Ireland 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99
Bermuda 1.00
West Bank and Gaza 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Argentina 0.99 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98
Czech Republic 0.99 1.00 1.00 0.99 1.00
Cyprus 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Finland 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99
Slovak Republic 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.99
Philippines 0.98 1.00 1.00 1.00
Japan 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Norway 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Australia 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.02
Namibia 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.00
Bahamas, The 1.04 1.00 1.00 0.97
Kazakhstan 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.01
Botswana 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.00
Iceland 1.01 1.01 0.99 0.98 0.98
Greece 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.00
Seychelles 1.02 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.03
Sweden 1.01 1.01 1.03 1.03 1.03
Honduras 1.02 1.02 1.04 1.01 1.01
Korea, Rep. 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.01 1.01
Kiribati 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.03 0.99
Mongolia 1.01 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.01
Samoa 1.02 1.03 1.05 1.00 1.02
Nicaragua 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.02 1.02
Armenia 1.02 1.05 1.08 1.00
Guyana 1.01 1.05 1.04 0.98
Kuwait 1.00 1.06 1.08 1.06 1.04
Qatar 1.05 1.08 0.99 1.05 1.05
Lesotho 1.14 1.11 1.11 1.10 1.05
United Kingdom 1.00 1.00 1.00
Marshall Islands 0.99
Libya 0.99
Belgium 0.99 0.99 0.99
Sierra Leone 0.92
Liberia 0.65 0.75 0.74
Timor-Leste
South Sudan
Saudi Arabia
Suriname
Malawi 0.91 0.95 0.95
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Guam
Moldova 1.00 0.99
Aruba 0.98 0.97
Monaco
Angola 0.82
Vietnam 0.95 0.93 0.95
Luxembourg 1.01 1.01
Afghanistan 0.08 0.00
Serbia 0.99 0.99
Zambia 0.92 0.93 0.92 0.93
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Brazil
Somalia
Myanmar 0.97 0.98
Sri Lanka 0.98 0.98
Burkina Faso 0.67 0.69 0.70 0.71
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.92 0.92 0.95
Nepal 0.71 0.75 0.77
Ghana 0.92 0.93
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.75 0.91
New Caledonia
Antigua and Barbuda
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Liechtenstein
Malaysia
Curacao
Bangladesh
Sao Tome and Principe 0.97 0.81 0.96
Nigeria 0.86 0.81 0.81
Cayman Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
Hong Kong SAR, China 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.97
Kenya 0.98 0.97 0.99
Singapore
Jordan 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Central African Republic
Pakistan 0.68
Solomon Islands 0.93 0.92
Palau
Colombia 1.00 0.97 1.00 1.00
Panama 0.97 0.97
Comoros 0.86 0.86 0.86
Jamaica 1.00 1.00
St. Kitts and Nevis 0.98 1.04
Israel 0.99 0.99
St. Martin (French part)
Peru 0.99 0.99 0.99
Sudan
Isle of Man
Greenland
Iraq 0.86 0.83 0.83
Switzerland 1.00 1.00 0.99 1.00
Portugal 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.96
Madagascar 0.96 0.96 0.97 0.96
Puerto Rico
Thailand 0.98 0.97 0.97
Turkmenistan
French Polynesia
Tuvalu 1.04
Faroe Islands
Ukraine 1.00 1.00 1.00
Andorra
Cabo Verde 0.97 0.97 0.98
Turks and Caicos Islands
Russian Federation 0.99 0.99
American Samoa
Canada 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Equatorial Guinea 0.82
Dominica 1.03 1.02
United States 0.99 1.03 1.03 0.99
Macao SAR, China
Dominican Republic 0.97 0.98 0.97
San Marino
Denmark 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Montenegro
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Barbados 0.98 0.98
Yemen, Rep. 0.56
Mozambique 0.74 0.74 0.75
Zimbabwe 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97

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