Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Chad 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.42 0.44
Nepal 0.45 0.46 0.49 0.55 0.59
Guinea 0.46 0.44 0.45 0.44 0.45
Benin 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.50 0.50
Somalia 0.50
Pakistan 0.53 0.53 0.54 0.53 0.53
Afghanistan 0.55 0.50 0.53 0.55
Bhutan 0.55 0.60
Niger 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.59 0.60
Burkina Faso 0.60 0.60 0.61 0.62 0.63
Mali 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61
Togo 0.62 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.64
Gambia, The 0.63 0.64 0.63
Central African Republic 0.63 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.63
Morocco 0.64 0.65 0.66 0.66 0.68
Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.65 0.79 0.74 0.71
Ethiopia 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.64 0.66
Senegal 0.69 0.69 0.70 0.72 0.73
Mauritania 0.69 0.68 0.72 0.72 0.73
Bangladesh 0.69 0.69 0.80 0.81 0.84
Cote d'Ivoire 0.70 0.70 0.71 0.71 0.71
Burundi 0.71 0.74 0.78 0.79 0.80
Djibouti 0.72 0.71 0.72 0.73 0.74
India 0.72 0.74 0.74 0.73 0.74
St. Kitts and Nevis 0.73 0.99 0.97 0.97 0.94
Comoros 0.76 0.80 0.80 0.81 0.71
Mozambique 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.75
Cambodia 0.80 0.77 0.77 0.78
Algeria 0.80 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.84
Egypt, Arab Rep. 0.81 0.82 0.79 0.84 0.85
Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.81 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.88
Oman 0.82 0.85 0.87 0.88 0.90
Angola 0.82 0.82 0.80 0.83 0.92
Solomon Islands 0.82 0.85
Grenada 0.82 0.91
Nigeria 0.82 0.83 0.76 0.85 0.79
Malawi 0.83 0.85 0.86 0.86 0.86
Tunisia 0.83 0.83 0.84 0.85 0.86
Uganda 0.83 0.82 0.79 0.81 0.80
Papua New Guinea 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84
Lao PDR 0.84 0.81 0.79
Cameroon 0.84 0.85 0.85 0.86 0.86
Guatemala 0.85
Iraq 0.86 0.85 0.87 0.84
China 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.90
Syrian Arab Republic 0.88 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90
Haiti 0.89 0.94
Turkey 0.90 0.90 0.91 0.91 0.91
Zambia 0.91 0.91
Bolivia 0.92 0.91 0.92 0.93
Myanmar 0.92 0.91 0.92 0.92 0.93
Vietnam 0.93
Cuba 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.95 0.96
Belize 0.94 0.95
Libya 0.94
Indonesia 0.94 0.95 0.95 0.97 0.97
Malta 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.98 0.97
Portugal 0.95 0.95 0.89 0.96
Paraguay 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.96
Kenya 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.97
Panama 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.96
Chile 0.95 0.96 0.97
Guyana 0.96 0.97 0.96 0.95
Rwanda 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.99
Zimbabwe 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.99
Congo, Rep. 0.96 0.91 0.96 0.94 0.94
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.96 0.98
Uzbekistan 0.96 0.98 0.99
Sri Lanka 0.97 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.97
Qatar 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94
Suriname 0.97 0.98 0.99 1.01 1.10
Czech Republic 0.97 0.97 0.97 1.00 1.00
Dominica 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.94
Mexico 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.96
Costa Rica 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98
Estonia 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.97 0.97
Tonga 0.98 0.99
Canada 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.99
Cabo Verde 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.97
France 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.98
South Africa 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99
Gabon 0.98 1.00 0.99 1.00
Austria 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.99 1.00
Kuwait 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.97
St. Lucia 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.93 0.95
Argentina 0.98 0.99 1.05 0.99
Moldova 0.98 0.99 0.99
Ecuador 0.98 0.99 0.99
Brunei Darussalam 0.99 0.96 0.98 0.96
Hong Kong SAR, China 0.99 0.98 0.99
New Zealand 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.98
Georgia 0.99
Swaziland 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00
Albania 0.99 0.97 1.00 1.00 0.99
Spain 0.99 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98
Mongolia 0.99 0.99
Cyprus 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.99 1.00
Uruguay 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.99
United Arab Emirates 0.99 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.96
Fiji 0.99 0.99
Venezuela, RB 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Australia 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Mauritius 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01
Kyrgyz Republic 1.00 1.06 1.02
Italy 1.00 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Bulgaria 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.98
Sweden 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Hungary 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Denmark 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Norway 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Finland 1.00 1.01 1.00 1.00 0.99
Iceland 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Philippines 1.00 0.98 1.01 1.01 0.98
Japan 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Luxembourg 1.00 1.01 1.02
United Kingdom 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Russian Federation 1.00 1.00 1.00
Belgium 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Lithuania 1.01
Ireland 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01
Tanzania 1.01 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
Jordan 1.01 1.01 1.04 1.01 1.00
Korea, Rep. 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Greece 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00
Switzerland 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Kiribati 1.01 1.00 1.01 1.04 1.02
United States 1.01 1.00 1.00
Bahrain 1.01 1.02 1.02 1.01 1.03
Bahamas, The 1.01
Jamaica 1.02 0.99 1.00 1.01 1.00
Netherlands 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.03 1.03
Trinidad and Tobago 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.02
Seychelles 1.02 1.04 1.03 1.00
Honduras 1.02 1.00 1.01
Israel 1.03 1.02 1.04 1.01 1.03
Colombia 1.03 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.15
Dominican Republic 1.04
Samoa 1.08
Botswana 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.07
Nicaragua 1.10 1.10 1.11 1.11 1.08
Lesotho 1.27 1.28 1.27 1.26 1.25
Faroe Islands
Ukraine
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Equatorial Guinea
Bermuda
Cayman Islands
Palau
Brazil
Belarus
Turkmenistan
Northern Mariana Islands
American Samoa
Maldives
French Polynesia
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Greenland
Malaysia
Eritrea 0.90 0.94
Curacao
Timor-Leste
Poland 0.98 0.98
Azerbaijan
Germany
Tuvalu
Puerto Rico
New Caledonia
Madagascar 0.95 0.95 0.96
Slovenia
Romania 1.00 1.00
Liberia
Latvia 1.00 1.07
South Sudan
Macedonia, FYR
Macao SAR, China 0.95
Barbados 1.01 0.99
Yemen, Rep.
St. Martin (French part)
Guam
Sudan
Croatia
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
San Marino
Marshall Islands
Sao Tome and Principe 0.94 0.95 0.91
Tajikistan
Saudi Arabia
Thailand
Liechtenstein
Montenegro
Serbia
Guinea-Bissau 0.54 0.54 0.55
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
El Salvador 0.99 0.99 0.99
Sierra Leone 0.68 0.71 0.68
Turks and Caicos Islands
Singapore
Kazakhstan 1.04
Andorra
Monaco
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Slovak Republic
Isle of Man
Antigua and Barbuda
Vanuatu 0.94 0.98
Ghana 0.79 0.83 0.84 0.84
Aruba
Peru
West Bank and Gaza
Namibia 1.10 1.09
Armenia
Lebanon 0.99

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