Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Chad 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.42 0.44
Guinea 0.46 0.44 0.45 0.44 0.45
Nepal 0.45 0.46 0.49 0.55 0.59
Benin 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.50 0.50
Pakistan 0.53 0.53 0.54 0.53 0.53
Guinea-Bissau 0.54 0.54 0.55
Niger 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.59 0.60
Burkina Faso 0.60 0.60 0.61 0.62 0.63
Mali 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61
Central African Republic 0.63 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.63
Togo 0.62 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.64
Gambia, The 0.63 0.64 0.63
Ethiopia 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.64 0.66
Morocco 0.64 0.65 0.66 0.66 0.68
Mauritania 0.69 0.68 0.72 0.72 0.73
Bangladesh 0.69 0.69 0.80 0.81 0.84
Senegal 0.69 0.69 0.70 0.72 0.73
Cote d'Ivoire 0.70 0.70 0.71 0.71 0.71
Djibouti 0.72 0.71 0.72 0.73 0.74
Burundi 0.71 0.74 0.78 0.79 0.80
India 0.72 0.74 0.74 0.73 0.74
Cambodia 0.80 0.77 0.77 0.78
Mozambique 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.75
Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.65 0.79 0.74 0.71
Ghana 0.79 0.83 0.84 0.84
Comoros 0.76 0.80 0.80 0.81 0.71
Angola 0.82 0.82 0.80 0.83 0.92
Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.81 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.88
Egypt, Arab Rep. 0.81 0.82 0.79 0.84 0.85
Algeria 0.80 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.84
Uganda 0.83 0.82 0.79 0.81 0.80
Nigeria 0.82 0.83 0.76 0.85 0.79
Tunisia 0.83 0.83 0.84 0.85 0.86
Papua New Guinea 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84
Malawi 0.83 0.85 0.86 0.86 0.86
Oman 0.82 0.85 0.87 0.88 0.90
Iraq 0.86 0.85 0.87 0.84
Cameroon 0.84 0.85 0.85 0.86 0.86
China 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.90
Syrian Arab Republic 0.88 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90
Turkey 0.90 0.90 0.91 0.91 0.91
Congo, Rep. 0.96 0.91 0.96 0.94 0.94
Myanmar 0.92 0.91 0.92 0.92 0.93
Bolivia 0.92 0.91 0.92 0.93
Cuba 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.95 0.96
Haiti 0.89 0.94
Sao Tome and Principe 0.94 0.95 0.91
Portugal 0.95 0.95 0.89 0.96
Belize 0.94 0.95
Malta 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.98 0.97
Panama 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.96
Indonesia 0.94 0.95 0.95 0.97 0.97
Paraguay 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.96
Dominica 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.94
Kenya 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.97
Brunei Darussalam 0.99 0.96 0.98 0.96
Sri Lanka 0.97 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.97
Guyana 0.96 0.97 0.96 0.95
Zimbabwe 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.99
St. Lucia 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.93 0.95
Qatar 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94
Rwanda 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.99
Czech Republic 0.97 0.97 0.97 1.00 1.00
Mexico 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.96
Albania 0.99 0.97 1.00 1.00 0.99
United Arab Emirates 0.99 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.96
Cabo Verde 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.97
Costa Rica 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98
South Africa 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99
Kuwait 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.97
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.96 0.98
Canada 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.99
Philippines 1.00 0.98 1.01 1.01 0.98
Suriname 0.97 0.98 0.99 1.01 1.10
Hong Kong SAR, China 0.99 0.98 0.99
France 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.98
Austria 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.99 1.00
Ecuador 0.98 0.99 0.99
Jamaica 1.02 0.99 1.00 1.01 1.00
Uruguay 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.99
New Zealand 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.98
Cyprus 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.99 1.00
Swaziland 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00
St. Kitts and Nevis 0.73 0.99 0.97 0.97 0.94
Mongolia 0.99 0.99
Italy 1.00 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Bulgaria 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.98
El Salvador 0.99 0.99 0.99
Fiji 0.99 0.99
Argentina 0.98 0.99 1.05 0.99
Venezuela, RB 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Iceland 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Australia 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Estonia 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.97 0.97
Sweden 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Gabon 0.98 1.00 0.99 1.00
Tanzania 1.01 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
United States 1.01 1.00 1.00
Mauritius 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01
Hungary 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Spain 0.99 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98
Japan 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Denmark 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Kiribati 1.01 1.00 1.01 1.04 1.02
Norway 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
United Kingdom 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Ireland 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01
Finland 1.00 1.01 1.00 1.00 0.99
Luxembourg 1.00 1.01 1.02
Korea, Rep. 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Belgium 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Greece 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00
Trinidad and Tobago 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.02
Jordan 1.01 1.01 1.04 1.01 1.00
Switzerland 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Colombia 1.03 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.15
Netherlands 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.03 1.03
Israel 1.03 1.02 1.04 1.01 1.03
Bahrain 1.01 1.02 1.02 1.01 1.03
Seychelles 1.02 1.04 1.03 1.00
Botswana 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.07
Nicaragua 1.10 1.10 1.11 1.11 1.08
Lesotho 1.27 1.28 1.27 1.26 1.25
Romania 1.00 1.00
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Somalia 0.50
Moldova 0.98 0.99 0.99
Serbia
Monaco
Curacao
Equatorial Guinea
San Marino
Montenegro
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Croatia
Grenada 0.82 0.91
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Turkmenistan
Chile 0.95 0.96 0.97
Barbados 1.01 0.99
Namibia 1.10 1.09
Saudi Arabia
Cayman Islands
Sierra Leone 0.68 0.71 0.68
Liechtenstein
Slovenia
New Caledonia
South Sudan
Germany
Malaysia
Marshall Islands
Faroe Islands
Guatemala 0.85
Lithuania 1.01
Kazakhstan 1.04
Russian Federation 1.00 1.00 1.00
Northern Mariana Islands
Samoa 1.08
Honduras 1.02 1.00 1.01
Dominican Republic 1.04
Brazil
Bahamas, The 1.01
Uzbekistan 0.96 0.98 0.99
Maldives
Palau
Singapore
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Slovak Republic
Greenland
Solomon Islands 0.82 0.85
Macao SAR, China 0.95
Azerbaijan
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Macedonia, FYR
Armenia
French Polynesia
Madagascar 0.95 0.95 0.96
St. Martin (French part)
Tajikistan
Sudan
Thailand
Isle of Man
Bhutan 0.55 0.60
Bermuda
Aruba
Peru
Eritrea 0.90 0.94
Guam
Timor-Leste
Poland 0.98 0.98
Tonga 0.98 0.99
Tuvalu
Ukraine
Antigua and Barbuda
Libya 0.94
Turks and Caicos Islands
Liberia
Andorra
Yemen, Rep.
American Samoa
Puerto Rico
Belarus
Georgia 0.99
Kyrgyz Republic 1.00 1.06 1.02
Vanuatu 0.94 0.98
Lao PDR 0.84 0.81 0.79
Vietnam 0.93
Latvia 1.00 1.07
West Bank and Gaza
Afghanistan 0.55 0.50 0.53 0.55
Zambia 0.91 0.91
Lebanon 0.99

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