Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Chad 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.42 0.44
Guinea 0.46 0.44 0.45 0.44 0.45
Nepal 0.45 0.46 0.49 0.55 0.59
Benin 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.50 0.50
Afghanistan 0.55 0.50 0.53 0.55
Pakistan 0.53 0.53 0.54 0.53 0.53
Guinea-Bissau 0.54 0.54 0.55
Niger 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.59 0.60
Bhutan 0.55 0.60
Central African Republic 0.63 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.63
Burkina Faso 0.60 0.60 0.61 0.62 0.63
Mali 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61
Ethiopia 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.64 0.66
Togo 0.62 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.64
Morocco 0.64 0.65 0.66 0.66 0.68
Sierra Leone 0.68 0.71 0.68
Senegal 0.69 0.69 0.70 0.72 0.73
Cote d'Ivoire 0.70 0.70 0.71 0.71 0.71
Mauritania 0.69 0.68 0.72 0.72 0.73
Djibouti 0.72 0.71 0.72 0.73 0.74
Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.65 0.79 0.74 0.71
India 0.72 0.74 0.74 0.73 0.74
Nigeria 0.82 0.83 0.76 0.85 0.79
Mozambique 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.75
Cambodia 0.80 0.77 0.77 0.78
Burundi 0.71 0.74 0.78 0.79 0.80
Egypt, Arab Rep. 0.81 0.82 0.79 0.84 0.85
Uganda 0.83 0.82 0.79 0.81 0.80
Angola 0.82 0.82 0.80 0.83 0.92
Bangladesh 0.69 0.69 0.80 0.81 0.84
Comoros 0.76 0.80 0.80 0.81 0.71
Lao PDR 0.84 0.81 0.79
Ghana 0.79 0.83 0.84 0.84
Algeria 0.80 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.84
Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.81 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.88
Tunisia 0.83 0.83 0.84 0.85 0.86
Papua New Guinea 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84
Cameroon 0.84 0.85 0.85 0.86 0.86
Malawi 0.83 0.85 0.86 0.86 0.86
Iraq 0.86 0.85 0.87 0.84
Oman 0.82 0.85 0.87 0.88 0.90
China 0.86 0.87 0.88 0.89 0.90
Portugal 0.95 0.95 0.89 0.96
Syrian Arab Republic 0.88 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90
Turkey 0.90 0.90 0.91 0.91 0.91
Grenada 0.82 0.91
Zambia 0.91 0.91
Myanmar 0.92 0.91 0.92 0.92 0.93
Cuba 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.95 0.96
Dominica 0.97 0.95 0.94 0.94
Madagascar 0.95 0.95 0.96
Indonesia 0.94 0.95 0.95 0.97 0.97
St. Lucia 0.98 0.97 0.95 0.93 0.95
Sao Tome and Principe 0.94 0.95 0.91
Paraguay 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.96
Malta 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.98 0.97
Panama 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.96
Guyana 0.96 0.97 0.96 0.95
United Arab Emirates 0.99 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.96
Congo, Rep. 0.96 0.91 0.96 0.94 0.94
Qatar 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94
Kenya 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.97
Sri Lanka 0.97 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.97
Mexico 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.96
Czech Republic 0.97 0.97 0.97 1.00 1.00
Zimbabwe 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.98 0.99
St. Kitts and Nevis 0.73 0.99 0.97 0.97 0.94
Rwanda 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.99
South Africa 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99
Brunei Darussalam 0.99 0.96 0.98 0.96
Kuwait 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.97
Costa Rica 0.97 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98
Canada 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.99
Estonia 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.97 0.97
Cyprus 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.99 1.00
Austria 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.99 1.00
Uruguay 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.99
Cabo Verde 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.97
Spain 0.99 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98
Suriname 0.97 0.98 0.99 1.01 1.10
France 0.98 0.98 0.99 0.99 0.98
Ecuador 0.98 0.99 0.99
Gabon 0.98 1.00 0.99 1.00
Swaziland 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.00
Bulgaria 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.98
Hong Kong SAR, China 0.99 0.98 0.99
New Zealand 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.98
El Salvador 0.99 0.99 0.99
Tanzania 1.01 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
Italy 1.00 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Norway 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Venezuela, RB 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sweden 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Australia 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Iceland 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Jamaica 1.02 0.99 1.00 1.01 1.00
Finland 1.00 1.01 1.00 1.00 0.99
Japan 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Mauritius 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01
Albania 0.99 0.97 1.00 1.00 0.99
United Kingdom 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Denmark 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Ireland 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01
Hungary 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Honduras 1.02 1.00 1.01
Korea, Rep. 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Belgium 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Kiribati 1.01 1.00 1.01 1.04 1.02
Greece 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00
Trinidad and Tobago 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.02
Switzerland 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Philippines 1.00 0.98 1.01 1.01 0.98
Colombia 1.03 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.15
Bahrain 1.01 1.02 1.02 1.01 1.03
Luxembourg 1.00 1.01 1.02
Netherlands 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.03 1.03
Seychelles 1.02 1.04 1.03 1.00
Jordan 1.01 1.01 1.04 1.01 1.00
Israel 1.03 1.02 1.04 1.01 1.03
Argentina 0.98 0.99 1.05 0.99
Botswana 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.07
Nicaragua 1.10 1.10 1.11 1.11 1.08
Lesotho 1.27 1.28 1.27 1.26 1.25
Marshall Islands
Belarus
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Macedonia, FYR
Moldova 0.98 0.99 0.99
Sudan
Monaco
Cayman Islands
Mongolia 0.99 0.99
Slovak Republic
Montenegro
Guatemala 0.85
Uzbekistan 0.96 0.98 0.99
Liechtenstein
Libya 0.94
Lithuania 1.01
West Bank and Gaza
Aruba
Andorra
Singapore
Croatia
Solomon Islands 0.82 0.85
Maldives
Haiti 0.89 0.94
New Caledonia
St. Martin (French part)
Georgia 0.99
Greenland
Macao SAR, China 0.95
Barbados 1.01 0.99
United States 1.01 1.00 1.00
French Polynesia
Azerbaijan
Belize 0.94 0.95
Latvia 1.00 1.07
Bolivia 0.92 0.91 0.92 0.93
Northern Mariana Islands
Saudi Arabia
Curacao
Serbia
Kyrgyz Republic 1.00 1.06 1.02
Armenia
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Palau
Slovenia
Kazakhstan 1.04
Somalia 0.50
Chile 0.95 0.96 0.97
South Sudan
American Samoa
Bermuda
Peru
Guam
Malaysia
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.96 0.98
Poland 0.98 0.98
Dominican Republic 1.04
Tajikistan
Germany
Thailand
Brazil
Puerto Rico
Gambia, The 0.63 0.64 0.63
Faroe Islands
Timor-Leste
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tonga 0.98 0.99
Antigua and Barbuda
Fiji 0.99 0.99
Romania 1.00 1.00
Turkmenistan
Russian Federation 1.00 1.00 1.00
Tuvalu
Isle of Man
Ukraine
Samoa 1.08
Eritrea 0.90 0.94
San Marino
Equatorial Guinea
Vietnam 0.93
Vanuatu 0.94 0.98
Bahamas, The 1.01
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Namibia 1.10 1.09
Yemen, Rep.
Liberia
Lebanon 0.99

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