Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Nepal 0.42 0.43 0.46 0.52 0.55
Pakistan 0.49 0.49 0.50 0.49 0.50
Afghanistan 0.53 0.50
Niger 0.52 0.53 0.53
Guinea-Bissau 0.52 0.52 0.55
Togo 0.55 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.58
Mali 0.58 0.57 0.59 0.59
Central African Republic 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.58 0.59
Sierra Leone 0.63 0.66 0.64
Mauritania 0.62 0.65 0.65 0.67
Morocco 0.65 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.69
Senegal 0.65 0.66 0.67 0.68
India 0.66 0.67 0.68 0.67
Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.61 0.70 0.68
Bangladesh 0.63 0.62 0.72 0.73 0.75
Djibouti 0.71 0.71 0.72 0.72
Burundi 0.69 0.72 0.76 0.78 0.79
Egypt, Arab Rep. 0.76 0.77 0.76 0.80 0.82
Ghana 0.76 0.77 0.78 0.78
Turkey 0.77 0.77 0.78 0.78 0.78
Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.79 0.82
Lao PDR 0.81 0.79 0.77
Iraq 0.76 0.77 0.79 0.77
Malawi 0.76 0.78 0.79 0.80 0.81
Algeria 0.78 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.82
Papua New Guinea 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.81 0.82
Oman 0.74 0.78 0.81 0.83 0.85
Tunisia 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.82 0.84
Cameroon 0.80 0.81 0.81 0.82 0.82
China 0.81 0.83 0.83 0.84 0.85
Syrian Arab Republic 0.82 0.83 0.84 0.84 0.85
Zambia 0.87 0.87
Myanmar 0.91 0.90 0.91 0.92 0.92
Indonesia 0.91 0.92 0.93
Zimbabwe 0.90 0.91 0.91 0.92 0.96
Congo, Rep. 0.90 0.88 0.91 0.90 0.89
Kenya 0.91 0.91 0.92
Kuwait 0.94 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.94
Madagascar 0.92 0.95 0.96
Austria 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.94 0.94
Gabon 0.92 0.94 0.94 0.97
Rwanda 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.95
Sao Tome and Principe 0.95
Albania 0.94 0.94 0.95 0.95 0.94
Switzerland 0.95 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.97
Malta 0.95 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.95
Portugal 1.01 0.96 0.97
Grenada 0.94 0.96
Paraguay 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.98 0.98
Mexico 0.96 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.97
Netherlands 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.97
Iceland 0.96 0.98 0.98
Korea, Rep. 0.98 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98
Tanzania 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.97
Greece 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.99
Cabo Verde 0.96 0.98 0.99 0.99
Costa Rica 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
Canada 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00
Mauritius 0.96 0.97 0.99 1.00 1.00
Italy 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00
Bulgaria 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99
Seychelles 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.99
New Zealand 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99
Bahrain 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.03
Ecuador 1.00 1.00 1.00
Denmark 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.01
Kiribati 1.01 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.02
Hungary 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.00
Panama 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00
Belgium 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Philippines 1.01 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.00
El Salvador 1.01 0.99
Japan 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Cyprus 1.01 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01
Sweden 1.02 1.01 1.02 1.02
Trinidad and Tobago 1.01 1.01 1.02 1.03
Cuba 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.03 1.05
United Kingdom 1.02 1.02 1.01 1.02 1.02
St. Kitts and Nevis 0.82 1.02 1.02 1.01
Luxembourg 0.99 1.00 1.02
Colombia 1.03 1.02 1.02 1.02
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.02 1.02 1.02
Sri Lanka 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02
Norway 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.02
Jamaica 1.06 1.02 1.03 1.04
France 1.04 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.03
Spain 1.04 1.05 1.04 1.04 1.03
Ireland 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.05 1.05
United Arab Emirates 0.99 1.03 1.05 1.06 1.06
Israel 1.05 1.04 1.05 1.04 1.04
Qatar 0.95 1.06 1.05 1.06 1.06
Argentina 1.01 1.02 1.06
Venezuela, RB 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.06
Jordan 1.04 1.04 1.06 1.03 1.02
Botswana 1.08 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.08
Finland 1.08 1.09 1.08 1.08 1.09
Suriname 1.06 1.08 1.09 1.09 1.16
Czech Republic 1.03 1.10 1.10 0.97 0.94
Nicaragua 1.21 1.21 1.22 1.20
Lesotho 1.30 1.31 1.31 1.30 1.29
Brunei Darussalam
Kazakhstan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Kyrgyz Republic 0.98 0.99 1.00
Sudan
Isle of Man
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Latvia
South Africa 1.03 1.03
Honduras
Thailand
American Samoa
Uzbekistan
Liberia
Cambodia
Libya 0.91
Slovak Republic
Liechtenstein
Bhutan
Lithuania
Belize 0.98 0.97
Haiti
Azerbaijan
Macao SAR, China 0.99
Armenia
Macedonia, FYR
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Guyana 0.97 0.97
Samoa
Guinea 0.43 0.41 0.42 0.42
Burkina Faso 0.59
Malaysia
Singapore
Maldives
Solomon Islands 0.79 0.82
Guatemala
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Guam
St. Martin (French part)
Marshall Islands
Swaziland
Greenland
Tajikistan
Germany
Bahamas, The 1.07
Georgia 0.87
Aruba
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Uganda 0.80 0.78
Moldova 1.05
United States 1.02 1.01 1.00
Monaco
Angola
Mongolia
Yemen, Rep.
Montenegro
Cayman Islands
Gambia, The 0.57 0.59 0.58
San Marino
Mozambique 0.74 0.74 0.73
Saudi Arabia
French Polynesia
Serbia
Namibia 1.11
Brazil
Fiji 1.00 1.01
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Faroe Islands
Slovenia
New Caledonia
Somalia 0.52
Ethiopia
South Sudan
Estonia
Bolivia
Eritrea
St. Lucia 1.07 1.06 1.03
Nigeria 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.79
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1.06 1.06
Northern Mariana Islands
Bermuda
Equatorial Guinea
Benin 0.47 0.47
Dominican Republic
Belarus
Dominica 1.07 1.06 1.02
Barbados 1.03 0.95
Palau
Timor-Leste
Curacao
Tonga 1.01 0.99
Croatia
Australia
Cote d'Ivoire
Turkmenistan
Peru
Tuvalu
Comoros 0.73 0.77
Ukraine
Poland 1.00 1.00
Antigua and Barbuda
Chile 0.99 1.00 1.00
Uruguay
Puerto Rico
Vanuatu
Chad 0.37 0.40 0.42
Vietnam
Romania 0.98 0.98
West Bank and Gaza
Russian Federation
Andorra
Lebanon

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