Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Togo 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.31 0.34
Nepal 0.33 0.35 0.38 0.40 0.42
Guinea 0.36 0.33 0.33 0.32
Central African Republic 0.36 0.40 0.38 0.41 0.40
Benin 0.39 0.39
Pakistan 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.42
Gambia, The 0.41 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.47
Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.42 0.43 0.47
Bangladesh 0.47 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.51
Mozambique 0.48 0.49 0.56
Senegal 0.50 0.51 0.50 0.51
Burundi 0.50 0.55 0.56 0.59 0.61
Afghanistan 0.50 0.49
Malawi 0.51 0.52 0.55 0.56 0.58
Oman 0.51 0.56 0.62 0.67 0.72
Burkina Faso 0.52
Uganda 0.53 0.58
India 0.54 0.54 0.56 0.57
Turkey 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.59
Somalia 0.55
Iraq 0.57 0.60 0.62 0.64
Papua New Guinea 0.59 0.56 0.57 0.60 0.65
Zambia 0.59 0.59
Tanzania 0.62 0.65 0.69 0.73
Cameroon 0.63 0.65 0.66 0.67 0.68
Solomon Islands 0.64 0.62
Comoros 0.65 0.67
Djibouti 0.65 0.72 0.73 0.70
Morocco 0.67 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.72
Zimbabwe 0.68 0.71 0.72 0.74 0.88
Syrian Arab Republic 0.68 0.69 0.71 0.71 0.73
Tunisia 0.69 0.72 0.73 0.76 0.77
Egypt, Arab Rep. 0.69 0.70 0.72 0.74 0.78
China 0.69 0.73 0.73 0.74 0.74
Lao PDR 0.71 0.71 0.69
Nigeria 0.72 0.79 0.79 0.78
Gabon 0.73 0.73 0.77 0.88
Algeria 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.76 0.77
Congo, Rep. 0.78 0.80 0.82 0.81 0.76
Kenya 0.78 0.79 0.80
Rwanda 0.79 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.82
Georgia 0.83
Myanmar 0.86 0.87 0.89 0.90 0.92
Libya 0.86
Kuwait 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.89 0.92
Albania 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.93 0.91
Mauritius 0.91 0.92 0.98 0.98 1.00
Austria 0.91 0.90 0.91 0.92 0.91
Switzerland 0.91 0.92 0.92 0.93 0.94
Iceland 0.93 0.96 0.95
Qatar 0.94 1.23 1.21 1.26 1.27
Mexico 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99
Bahrain 0.95 0.96 0.97 1.01 1.02
Korea, Rep. 0.96 0.98 0.95 0.95 0.95
Netherlands 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.94 0.93
Azerbaijan 0.96
Malta 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.93 0.93
Kyrgyz Republic 0.97 0.95 0.99
Greece 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.96 0.98
Seychelles 0.98 0.94 0.95 0.97
Luxembourg 0.98 0.99 1.02
Paraguay 0.99 0.98 0.98 1.05 1.04
St. Kitts and Nevis 0.99 1.05 1.09 1.08
Italy 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.01
United Arab Emirates 0.99 1.12 1.20 1.23 1.23
Guyana 0.99 0.99
Kiribati 0.99 0.99 1.00 0.87 1.00
Bulgaria 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00
Canada 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.02 1.01
Denmark 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.02
Hungary 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
New Zealand 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.01 1.00
Belgium 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Japan 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02
Colombia 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03
Fiji 1.03 1.03
United States 1.03 1.03 1.01
United Kingdom 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03
Ecuador 1.04 1.04 1.04
Cyprus 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.03
Chile 1.05 1.04 1.05
Tonga 1.05 0.98
Philippines 1.05 1.04 0.99 0.99 1.04
Norway 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.04
Belize 1.06 1.03
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.06 1.06 1.05
Czech Republic 1.06 1.18 1.18 0.95 0.92
Cuba 1.07 1.06 1.08 1.11 1.13
Costa Rica 1.07 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.04
Israel 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.06
Spain 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.06
Jordan 1.08 1.07 1.08 1.05 1.03
France 1.09 1.08 1.07 1.07 1.07
Botswana 1.10 1.05 1.04 1.08 1.11
Argentina 1.10 1.08 1.08
Ireland 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10
Sri Lanka 1.12 1.09 1.09 1.08 1.08
Panama 1.13 1.11 1.11 1.09 1.07
Jamaica 1.13 1.07 1.08 1.11
Bahamas, The 1.14 1.10
Portugal 1.15 1.14 1.00
Finland 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.16 1.18
Grenada 1.18 1.16 1.06 1.17 1.11
Venezuela, RB 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.24
Suriname 1.23 1.26 1.30 1.25 1.28
Dominica 1.26 1.31 1.20
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1.48 1.32 1.55
Lesotho 1.53 1.59 1.60 1.55 1.57
St. Lucia 1.64 1.60 1.51
Nicaragua 1.84 1.75 1.76 1.64
South Sudan
Australia
Liechtenstein
Timor-Leste
Macao SAR, China 1.09
Sierra Leone 0.50 0.50 0.52
Macedonia, FYR
Honduras
Madagascar 0.84 0.93 0.94
Tuvalu
Cote d'Ivoire
Saudi Arabia
Malaysia
Slovenia
Maldives
El Salvador 1.09 1.01
Mali 0.44 0.42 0.50 0.50
Bolivia
Croatia
Guatemala
Marshall Islands
Romania 0.97 0.97
Mauritania 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.46
San Marino
Armenia
Serbia
Germany
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Isle of Man
Moldova 1.09
Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.68 0.71
Monaco
Guam
Mongolia
Sweden 1.04 1.03 1.04 1.05
Montenegro
Bhutan
Liberia
Haiti
Latvia
Turkmenistan
Uzbekistan
Lithuania
Curacao
Russian Federation
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Samoa
Yemen, Rep.
Sao Tome and Principe 0.92
Ethiopia
French Polynesia
Eritrea
Brunei Darussalam
Ukraine
Singapore
Antigua and Barbuda
Slovak Republic
Cayman Islands
Brazil
Northern Mariana Islands
South Africa 1.14 1.16
Ghana 0.70 0.67 0.67 0.66
Dominican Republic
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Indonesia 0.81 0.82 0.84
American Samoa
St. Martin (French part)
Palau
Sudan
Equatorial Guinea
Swaziland
Cambodia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Estonia
Tajikistan
Peru
Thailand 1.04
Kazakhstan
Bermuda
Poland 1.04 1.04
Trinidad and Tobago 1.02 1.01 1.03 1.04
Greenland
Guinea-Bissau 0.33 0.34 0.46
Puerto Rico
Turks and Caicos Islands
Cabo Verde 0.85 0.94 0.99 1.07
Belarus 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.04
Niger 0.39 0.38 0.37
Faroe Islands
Angola
Chad 0.19 0.20 0.22
Uruguay
Namibia 1.26
Vanuatu
Andorra
Vietnam
Aruba
West Bank and Gaza
New Caledonia
Barbados 1.07 0.90
Lebanon

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