Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Chad 0.19 0.20 0.22
Togo 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.31 0.34
Guinea-Bissau 0.33 0.34 0.46
Guinea 0.36 0.33 0.33 0.32
Nepal 0.34 0.35 0.38 0.40 0.43
Benin 0.39 0.39
Central African Republic 0.36 0.40 0.38 0.41 0.40
Pakistan 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.42
Mauritania 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.46
Gambia, The 0.41 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.47
Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.42 0.43 0.47
Mali 0.44 0.42 0.50 0.50
Bangladesh 0.47 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.51
Mozambique 0.48 0.49 0.57
Malawi 0.50 0.52 0.55 0.56 0.58
Burundi 0.50 0.55 0.56 0.59 0.61
India 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.57
Turkey 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.59
Papua New Guinea 0.59 0.56 0.57 0.60 0.65
Oman 0.51 0.56 0.62 0.67 0.72
Iraq 0.57 0.60 0.62 0.64
Cameroon 0.63 0.65 0.66 0.67 0.68
Tanzania 0.62 0.65 0.69 0.73
Morocco 0.67 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.72
Comoros 0.64 0.67
Syrian Arab Republic 0.68 0.69 0.70 0.71 0.73
Ghana 0.70 0.67 0.67 0.66
Egypt, Arab Rep. 0.69 0.71 0.73 0.74 0.78
Zimbabwe 0.68 0.71 0.72 0.74 0.88
Djibouti 0.65 0.72 0.73 0.70
Tunisia 0.69 0.72 0.73 0.75 0.76
Gabon 0.73 0.73 0.77 0.88
China 0.71 0.73 0.73 0.74 0.73
Algeria 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.76 0.77
Nigeria 0.72 0.79 0.79 0.78
Rwanda 0.79 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.81
Kenya 0.78 0.79 0.80
Congo, Rep. 0.78 0.80 0.82 0.81 0.76
Cabo Verde 0.86 0.96 1.00 1.07
Myanmar 0.86 0.87 0.89 0.90 0.92
Austria 0.91 0.90 0.91 0.92 0.91
Kuwait 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.91
Albania 0.90 0.91 0.92 0.92 0.91
Switzerland 0.91 0.92 0.92 0.93 0.94
Mauritius 0.91 0.92 0.98 0.98 1.00
Seychelles 0.97 0.93 0.94 0.97
Netherlands 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.92
Mexico 0.94 0.95 0.97 0.98 0.99
Greece 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.96 0.98
Bahrain 0.95 0.96 0.97 1.01 1.02
Malta 0.97 0.97 0.97 0.93 0.93
Kiribati 0.99 0.97 0.98 0.84 0.96
Korea, Rep. 0.96 0.98 0.95 0.95 0.95
Paraguay 0.99 0.98 0.98 1.05 1.04
Italy 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00
Luxembourg 0.98 0.99 1.02
Bulgaria 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00
Canada 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.02 1.01
Denmark 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.02
United States 1.00 1.01 1.00
Hungary 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Belgium 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
New Zealand 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Malaysia 0.99 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.07
Japan 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02
Trinidad and Tobago 1.02 1.01 1.03 1.04
Colombia 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03
Guyana 1.05 1.03
United Kingdom 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03
Belize 1.06 1.03
Fiji 1.03 1.03
Sweden 1.04 1.03 1.04 1.05
Ecuador 1.04 1.04 1.04
Philippines 1.05 1.04 0.99 0.99 1.04
Belarus 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.04
Botswana 1.10 1.05 1.04 1.08 1.11
Norway 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.04
Cyprus 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.03
St. Kitts and Nevis 0.99 1.05 1.09 1.08
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.06 1.06 1.05
Jamaica 1.12 1.06 1.07 1.10
Cuba 1.07 1.06 1.08 1.11 1.13
Jordan 1.08 1.07 1.08 1.05 1.03
Costa Rica 1.09 1.07 1.05 1.04 1.05
Israel 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.06
Spain 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.06
France 1.09 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.07
Sri Lanka 1.12 1.09 1.09 1.08 1.08
Argentina 1.11 1.09 1.10
Bahamas, The 1.14 1.10
Ireland 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10
Panama 1.13 1.11 1.11 1.09 1.07
United Arab Emirates 1.00 1.13 1.20 1.23 1.23
Grenada 1.18 1.16 1.06 1.17 1.11
Finland 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.16 1.18
Czech Republic 1.06 1.18 1.18 0.95 0.91
Venezuela, RB 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.24
Qatar 0.95 1.24 1.22 1.27 1.28
Suriname 1.23 1.26 1.30 1.25 1.28
Dominica 1.26 1.31 1.20
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1.48 1.32 1.55
Lesotho 1.53 1.59 1.60 1.55 1.57
St. Lucia 1.64 1.60 1.51
Nicaragua 1.83 1.74 1.75 1.63
Slovak Republic
Bhutan
Portugal 1.15 1.14 1.00
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 1.01
Burkina Faso 0.52
Liberia
Sao Tome and Principe 0.92
Libya 0.86
Greenland
Liechtenstein
Faeroe Islands
Lithuania
Russian Federation
Estonia
Croatia
Macao SAR, China 1.09
South Africa 1.14 1.16
Macedonia, FYR
Sudan
Madagascar 0.84 0.93 0.94
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Bermuda
Brunei Darussalam
Eritrea
Bolivia
Maldives
Samoa
Iceland 0.93 0.96 0.95
Senegal 0.50 0.51 0.50 0.51
Equatorial Guinea
Singapore
Marshall Islands
Solomon Islands 0.64 0.62
El Salvador 1.10 1.03
Guam
Honduras
St. Martin (French part)
Uzbekistan
Swaziland
Dominican Republic
Yemen, Rep.
Curacao
Armenia
Monaco
Peru
Mongolia
Poland 1.05 1.05
Montenegro
Puerto Rico
Haiti
Romania 0.97 0.98
Barbados 1.06 0.90
Guatemala
Ethiopia
San Marino
Namibia 1.26
Saudi Arabia
Georgia 0.83
Serbia
French Polynesia 1.29 1.37
Sierra Leone 0.50 0.50 0.52
New Caledonia
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Cayman Islands
Slovenia
Tajikistan
Somalia 0.55
Thailand 1.04
South Sudan
Andorra
Kazakhstan
Germany
Indonesia 0.80 0.82 0.83
Chile 1.05 1.05 1.06
Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.69 0.72
Turks and Caicos Islands
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Uganda 0.53 0.58
Cambodia
Isle of Man
Antigua and Barbuda
Niger 0.39 0.38 0.37
Angola
Azerbaijan 0.96
Timor-Leste
Northern Mariana Islands
Tonga 1.05 0.98
Brazil
American Samoa 1.03
Australia
Turkmenistan
Aruba
Tuvalu
Palau
Ukraine
Cote d'Ivoire
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Moldova 1.09
Uruguay
Kyrgyz Republic 0.97 0.95 0.99
Vanuatu
Lao PDR 0.71 0.71 0.69
Vietnam
Latvia
West Bank and Gaza
Afghanistan 0.51 0.50
Zambia 0.60 0.59
Lebanon

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