Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Chad 0.19 0.20 0.22
Togo 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.31 0.34
Guinea-Bissau 0.33 0.34 0.46
Guinea 0.36 0.33 0.33 0.32
Nepal 0.33 0.35 0.38 0.40 0.42
Benin 0.39 0.39
Central African Republic 0.36 0.40 0.38 0.41 0.40
Pakistan 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.42
Mauritania 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.46
Gambia, The 0.41 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.47
Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.42 0.43 0.47
Mali 0.44 0.42 0.50 0.50
Bangladesh 0.47 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.51
Mozambique 0.48 0.49 0.56
Malawi 0.51 0.52 0.55 0.56 0.58
India 0.54 0.54 0.56 0.57
Burundi 0.50 0.55 0.56 0.59 0.61
Turkey 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.59
Papua New Guinea 0.59 0.56 0.57 0.60 0.65
Oman 0.51 0.56 0.62 0.67 0.72
Iraq 0.57 0.60 0.62 0.64
Cameroon 0.63 0.65 0.66 0.67 0.68
Tanzania 0.62 0.65 0.69 0.73
Morocco 0.67 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.72
Comoros 0.65 0.67
Syrian Arab Republic 0.68 0.69 0.71 0.71 0.73
Ghana 0.70 0.67 0.67 0.66
Egypt, Arab Rep. 0.69 0.70 0.72 0.74 0.78
Zimbabwe 0.68 0.71 0.72 0.74 0.88
Djibouti 0.65 0.72 0.73 0.70
Tunisia 0.69 0.72 0.73 0.76 0.77
Gabon 0.73 0.73 0.77 0.88
China 0.69 0.73 0.73 0.74 0.74
Algeria 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.76 0.77
Nigeria 0.72 0.79 0.79 0.78
Rwanda 0.79 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.82
Kenya 0.78 0.79 0.80
Congo, Rep. 0.78 0.80 0.82 0.81 0.76
Cabo Verde 0.85 0.94 0.99 1.07
Myanmar 0.86 0.87 0.89 0.90 0.92
Kuwait 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.89 0.92
Austria 0.91 0.90 0.91 0.92 0.91
Switzerland 0.91 0.92 0.92 0.93 0.94
Albania 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.93 0.91
Mauritius 0.91 0.92 0.98 0.98 1.00
Seychelles 0.98 0.94 0.95 0.97
Netherlands 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.94 0.93
Bahrain 0.95 0.96 0.97 1.01 1.02
Mexico 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99
Greece 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.96 0.98
Malta 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.93 0.93
Korea, Rep. 0.96 0.98 0.95 0.95 0.95
Paraguay 0.99 0.98 0.98 1.05 1.04
Kiribati 0.99 0.99 1.00 0.87 1.00
Guyana 0.99 0.99
Italy 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.01
Luxembourg 0.98 0.99 1.02
Bulgaria 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00
Canada 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.02 1.01
Denmark 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.02
Hungary 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
New Zealand 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.01 1.00
Belgium 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Japan 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02
Trinidad and Tobago 1.02 1.01 1.03 1.04
Colombia 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03
United Kingdom 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03
United States 1.03 1.03 1.01
Belize 1.06 1.03
Fiji 1.03 1.03
Sweden 1.04 1.03 1.04 1.05
Ecuador 1.04 1.04 1.04
Philippines 1.05 1.04 0.99 0.99 1.04
Botswana 1.10 1.05 1.04 1.08 1.11
Belarus 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.04
Norway 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.04
Costa Rica 1.07 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.04
Cyprus 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.03
St. Kitts and Nevis 0.99 1.05 1.09 1.08
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.06 1.06 1.05
Cuba 1.07 1.06 1.08 1.11 1.13
Jordan 1.08 1.07 1.08 1.05 1.03
Israel 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.06
Jamaica 1.13 1.07 1.08 1.11
France 1.09 1.08 1.07 1.07 1.07
Argentina 1.10 1.08 1.08
Spain 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.06
Sri Lanka 1.12 1.09 1.09 1.08 1.08
Bahamas, The 1.14 1.10
Ireland 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10
Panama 1.13 1.11 1.11 1.09 1.07
United Arab Emirates 0.99 1.12 1.20 1.23 1.23
Grenada 1.18 1.16 1.06 1.17 1.11
Finland 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.16 1.18
Czech Republic 1.06 1.18 1.18 0.95 0.92
Venezuela, RB 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.24
Qatar 0.94 1.23 1.21 1.26 1.27
Suriname 1.23 1.26 1.30 1.25 1.28
Dominica 1.26 1.31 1.20
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1.48 1.32 1.55
Lesotho 1.53 1.59 1.60 1.55 1.57
St. Lucia 1.64 1.60 1.51
Nicaragua 1.84 1.75 1.76 1.64
Singapore
Uganda 0.53 0.58
Yemen, Rep.
Swaziland
Bermuda
Samoa
Uzbekistan
Indonesia 0.81 0.82 0.84
Liberia
Andorra
Libya 0.86
Bolivia
Liechtenstein
Senegal 0.50 0.51 0.50 0.51
Lithuania
Solomon Islands 0.64 0.62
French Polynesia
St. Martin (French part)
Macao SAR, China 1.09
Tajikistan
Macedonia, FYR
Brazil
Madagascar 0.84 0.93 0.94
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Russian Federation
Malaysia
Sao Tome and Principe 0.92
Maldives
Curacao
Faroe Islands
Slovak Republic
Ethiopia
South Africa 1.14 1.16
Marshall Islands
Iceland 0.93 0.96 0.95
Estonia
Sudan
Eritrea
Croatia
Equatorial Guinea
Thailand 1.04
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Cote d'Ivoire
Moldova 1.09
Turks and Caicos Islands
Monaco
Guatemala
Mongolia
Puerto Rico
Montenegro
Romania 0.97 0.97
Barbados 1.07 0.90
Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.68 0.71
El Salvador 1.09 1.01
San Marino
Burkina Faso 0.52
Saudi Arabia
Namibia 1.26
Serbia
Azerbaijan 0.96
Sierra Leone 0.50 0.50 0.52
Cambodia
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
New Caledonia
Slovenia
Dominican Republic
Somalia 0.55
Chile 1.05 1.04 1.05
South Sudan
Guam
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bhutan
Brunei Darussalam
Northern Mariana Islands
Honduras
Kazakhstan
Haiti
Australia
Greenland
Aruba
Antigua and Barbuda
Palau
Angola
Georgia 0.83
Timor-Leste
Armenia
Tonga 1.05 0.98
Germany
American Samoa
Peru
Turkmenistan
Isle of Man
Tuvalu
Poland 1.04 1.04
Ukraine
Portugal 1.15 1.14 1.00
Cayman Islands
Niger 0.39 0.38 0.37
Uruguay
Kyrgyz Republic 0.97 0.95 0.99
Vanuatu
Lao PDR 0.71 0.71 0.69
Vietnam
Latvia
West Bank and Gaza
Afghanistan 0.50 0.49
Zambia 0.59 0.59
Lebanon

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