Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Togo 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.31 0.34
Guinea-Bissau 0.33 0.34 0.46
Central African Republic 0.36 0.40 0.38 0.41 0.40
Nepal 0.33 0.35 0.38 0.40 0.42
Niger 0.39 0.38 0.37
Pakistan 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.42
Gambia, The 0.41 0.42 0.41 0.41 0.47
Mali 0.44 0.42 0.50 0.50
Mauritania 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.46
Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.42 0.43 0.47
Bangladesh 0.47 0.46 0.48 0.50 0.51
Afghanistan 0.50 0.49
Sierra Leone 0.50 0.50 0.52
Senegal 0.50 0.51 0.50 0.51
Malawi 0.51 0.52 0.55 0.56 0.58
India 0.54 0.54 0.56 0.57
Turkey 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.59
Burundi 0.50 0.55 0.56 0.59 0.61
Papua New Guinea 0.59 0.56 0.57 0.60 0.65
Zambia 0.59 0.59
Oman 0.51 0.56 0.62 0.67 0.72
Iraq 0.57 0.60 0.62 0.64
Cameroon 0.63 0.65 0.66 0.67 0.68
Morocco 0.67 0.67 0.66 0.66 0.72
Ghana 0.70 0.67 0.67 0.66
Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.68 0.71
Tanzania 0.62 0.65 0.69 0.73
Syrian Arab Republic 0.68 0.69 0.71 0.71 0.73
Lao PDR 0.71 0.71 0.69
Egypt, Arab Rep. 0.69 0.70 0.72 0.74 0.78
Zimbabwe 0.68 0.71 0.72 0.74 0.88
Djibouti 0.65 0.72 0.73 0.70
Tunisia 0.69 0.72 0.73 0.76 0.77
China 0.69 0.73 0.73 0.74 0.74
Algeria 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.76 0.77
Gabon 0.73 0.73 0.77 0.88
Rwanda 0.79 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.82
Kenya 0.78 0.79 0.80
Indonesia 0.81 0.82 0.84
Congo, Rep. 0.78 0.80 0.82 0.81 0.76
Madagascar 0.84 0.93 0.94
Kuwait 0.91 0.89 0.88 0.89 0.92
Myanmar 0.86 0.87 0.89 0.90 0.92
Austria 0.91 0.90 0.91 0.92 0.91
Sao Tome and Principe 0.92
Switzerland 0.91 0.92 0.92 0.93 0.94
Albania 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.93 0.91
Netherlands 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.94 0.93
Cabo Verde 0.85 0.94 0.99 1.07
Korea, Rep. 0.96 0.98 0.95 0.95 0.95
Seychelles 0.98 0.94 0.95 0.97
Greece 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.96 0.98
Iceland 0.93 0.96 0.95
Malta 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.93 0.93
Mexico 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99
Bahrain 0.95 0.96 0.97 1.01 1.02
Mauritius 0.91 0.92 0.98 0.98 1.00
Paraguay 0.99 0.98 0.98 1.05 1.04
Italy 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.01
Philippines 1.05 1.04 0.99 0.99 1.04
Bulgaria 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.00
Kiribati 0.99 0.99 1.00 0.87 1.00
Canada 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.02 1.01
New Zealand 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.01 1.00
Denmark 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.02
Belgium 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Hungary 1.00 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01
Trinidad and Tobago 1.02 1.01 1.03 1.04
Luxembourg 0.98 0.99 1.02
Japan 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02
Sweden 1.04 1.03 1.04 1.05
Colombia 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03
United Kingdom 1.04 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03
Botswana 1.10 1.05 1.04 1.08 1.11
Costa Rica 1.07 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.04
Ecuador 1.04 1.04 1.04
Belarus 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.04
Cyprus 1.04 1.05 1.05 1.04 1.03
Norway 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.04
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.06 1.06 1.05
Grenada 1.18 1.16 1.06 1.17 1.11
Israel 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.07 1.06
France 1.09 1.08 1.07 1.07 1.07
Jordan 1.08 1.07 1.08 1.05 1.03
Jamaica 1.13 1.07 1.08 1.11
Spain 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.06
Cuba 1.07 1.06 1.08 1.11 1.13
Argentina 1.10 1.08 1.08
Sri Lanka 1.12 1.09 1.09 1.08 1.08
El Salvador 1.09 1.01
St. Kitts and Nevis 0.99 1.05 1.09 1.08
Ireland 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10
Panama 1.13 1.11 1.11 1.09 1.07
Portugal 1.15 1.14 1.00
Finland 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.16 1.18
Czech Republic 1.06 1.18 1.18 0.95 0.92
United Arab Emirates 0.99 1.12 1.20 1.23 1.23
Qatar 0.94 1.23 1.21 1.26 1.27
Venezuela, RB 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.24
Suriname 1.23 1.26 1.30 1.25 1.28
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1.48 1.32 1.55
Lesotho 1.53 1.59 1.60 1.55 1.57
Nicaragua 1.84 1.75 1.76 1.64
Singapore
Uganda 0.53 0.58
Latvia
Swaziland
Kyrgyz Republic 0.97 0.95 0.99
Samoa
Dominican Republic
Honduras
Liberia
Benin 0.39 0.39
Libya 0.86
Germany
Liechtenstein
Brazil
Lithuania
Solomon Islands 0.64 0.62
Azerbaijan 0.96
St. Martin (French part)
Macao SAR, China 1.09
Tajikistan
Macedonia, FYR
Barbados 1.07 0.90
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
United States 1.03 1.03 1.01
Curacao
Russian Federation
Malaysia
Brunei Darussalam
Maldives
Fiji 1.03 1.03
Antigua and Barbuda
Slovak Republic
Equatorial Guinea
South Africa 1.14 1.16
Marshall Islands
Guyana 0.99 0.99
Angola
Sudan
Croatia
Bolivia
Cote d'Ivoire
Thailand 1.04
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Belize 1.06 1.03
Moldova 1.09
Turks and Caicos Islands
Monaco
French Polynesia
Mongolia
Uzbekistan
Montenegro
Dominica 1.26 1.31 1.20
Kazakhstan
Burkina Faso 0.52
Mozambique 0.48 0.49 0.56
San Marino
Aruba
Saudi Arabia
Namibia 1.26
Serbia
Andorra
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Comoros 0.65 0.67
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
New Caledonia
Slovenia
Eritrea
Somalia 0.55
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
South Sudan
Yemen, Rep.
Haiti
Georgia 0.83
St. Lucia 1.64 1.60 1.51
Northern Mariana Islands
Guinea 0.36 0.33 0.33 0.32
Isle of Man
Guatemala
Chile 1.05 1.04 1.05
Guam
Chad 0.19 0.20 0.22
Bhutan
Palau
Bermuda
Estonia
Timor-Leste
Australia
Tonga 1.05 0.98
Cayman Islands
Greenland
Peru
Turkmenistan
Cambodia
Tuvalu
Poland 1.04 1.04
Ukraine
Ethiopia
Armenia
Puerto Rico
Uruguay
Faroe Islands
Vanuatu
Romania 0.97 0.97
Vietnam
American Samoa
West Bank and Gaza
Nigeria 0.72 0.79 0.79 0.78
Bahamas, The 1.14 1.10
Lebanon

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