Country name 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Indonesia 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.3
Myanmar 2.1 2.1 1.8 1.8 1.8
Albania 2.5 4.0 4.8 5.3 5.8
United Arab Emirates 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.5
Vanuatu 2.6 2.3 3.3 3.9 3.5
Ethiopia 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.6 3.9
Saudi Arabia 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.3 4.1
Malaysia 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.9 3.0
Brunei Darussalam 2.9 3.7 3.7 4.4 4.1
Singapore 3.0 2.9 2.8 3.1 2.9
Turkmenistan 3.1 3.2 4.8 5.0 3.9
Monaco 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.4
Fiji 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.1
Mongolia 3.2 3.5 3.6 4.0 4.0
Congo, Rep. 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.7 3.1
Romania 3.2 3.2 4.2 3.8 4.2
Solomon Islands 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.8
Pakistan 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.7
Sri Lanka 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.6 3.5
Turkey 3.4 3.9 4.2 3.6 4.8
Ecuador 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.6 4.0
Libya 3.4 3.5 3.8 3.9 3.4
Gabon 3.4 3.4 3.0 4.2 3.5
Philippines 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.2
Tajikistan 3.5 3.1 3.7 3.6 3.9
Papua New Guinea 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.8 4.1
Bangladesh 3.5 3.5 2.8 2.7 2.8
Thailand 3.5 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.5
China 3.5 3.8 4.0 4.4 4.5
Djibouti 3.6 3.6 4.6 5.5 6.2
Mauritius 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.4
Oman 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.5
Guatemala 3.7 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.9
Congo, Dem. Rep. 3.7 3.4 4.1 4.7 4.2
Sudan 3.7 4.1 3.7 4.0 3.8
Algeria 3.7 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.4
Qatar 3.7 3.6 3.2 3.4 2.9
Korea, Rep. 3.7 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.3
Kuwait 3.8 3.5 3.7 4.4 3.7
Iran, Islamic Rep. 3.8 3.7 4.1 4.5 4.6
Bhutan 3.8 6.2 7.2 7.0 6.7
Cameroon 3.9 5.2 4.6 4.4 4.4
Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.9 4.3 5.0 5.1 5.3
Central African Republic 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.9
Tanzania 3.9 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.5
Morocco 3.9 3.8 4.1 3.9 4.0
Senegal 3.9 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.5
India 4.0 3.9 4.2 4.3 4.0
Jamaica 4.1 4.7 6.0 5.1 4.7
Bahrain 4.1 4.0 4.4 4.2 4.1
Tonga 4.1 4.2 4.5 4.7 5.1
Yemen, Rep. 4.1 4.1 4.1 5.0 4.3
Lao PDR 4.1 4.6 6.3 6.4 3.7
Madagascar 4.2 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.5
Botswana 4.2 4.2 4.4 4.0 3.8
Venezuela, RB 4.2 3.5 3.9 4.5 5.7
Belize 4.2 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.7
Kenya 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.5 4.2
Rwanda 4.3 4.4 4.4 5.1 4.6
Burkina Faso 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.7 5.3
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 4.5 4.4 4.7 4.2 4.2
Bolivia 4.5 4.6 4.4 5.1 6.2
Peru 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.5 4.9
Eritrea 4.5 3.7 4.2 4.3 4.7
Gambia, The 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.4 4.4
Comoros 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.0 3.8
Togo 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.7
Kazakhstan 4.6 4.3 4.7 4.8 4.4
Trinidad and Tobago 4.7 4.3 4.2 3.7 4.3
Benin 4.7 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.6
Nigeria 4.7 4.7 4.7 5.6 5.6
Cyprus 4.7 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.6
St. Lucia 4.7 5.5 5.0 5.1 5.5
Mauritania 4.8 3.8 4.0 4.9 6.0
Angola 4.8 3.4 4.6 4.7 4.1
Antigua and Barbuda 4.9 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.0
Nepal 5.0 5.0 5.1 6.2 5.5
Swaziland 5.0 5.4 5.1 5.5 5.3
Malawi 5.0 4.6 5.1 5.5 6.5
Guyana 5.1 4.9 5.1 5.3 4.7
Georgia 5.1 7.5 8.0 6.5 6.3
Mexico 5.1 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.1
Cuba 5.2 5.3 5.5 5.8 6.0
Samoa 5.2 4.7 5.2 5.8 6.3
Vietnam 5.2 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.9
Seychelles 5.2 5.4 5.8 5.2 5.3
Suriname 5.2 7.4 7.8 8.6 6.8
Bulgaria 5.2 4.7 5.1 5.4 6.0
Mali 5.2 7.8 7.0 6.2 6.0
Cabo Verde 5.3 4.8 4.7 5.2 4.6
Mozambique 5.3 4.3 4.6 4.5 5.3
Ghana 5.3 5.1 5.3 5.2 5.1
Honduras 5.3 5.0 4.9 5.6 6.2
Russian Federation 5.4 5.6 7.1 6.6 5.8
Lithuania 5.4 5.6 5.7 6.1 6.2
St. Kitts and Nevis 5.4 5.4 5.1 5.1 5.3
Burundi 5.5 5.4 5.0 5.7 5.6
Poland 5.5 5.9 5.6 5.9 5.7
San Marino 5.5 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.2
Syrian Arab Republic 5.5 5.5 5.3 5.1 5.2
Dominican Republic 5.5 5.3 5.7 5.8 5.9
Guinea 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.6
Luxembourg 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.8
Zambia 5.6 5.9 6.2 6.5 5.8
Malta 5.6 6.0 6.3 6.4 6.4
Maldives 5.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.6
Uganda 5.8 5.5 5.3 5.5 6.7
Latvia 5.8 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.4
Chad 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.9
Azerbaijan 5.8 6.1 5.5 5.4 5.4
Tunisia 5.9 5.4 5.1 5.4 5.4
Equatorial Guinea 5.9 4.7 4.2 5.2 2.5
Dominica 5.9 6.0 6.1 5.9 5.9
Paraguay 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.8
Kyrgyz Republic 6.0 5.7 5.2 5.9 5.3
Slovak Republic 6.1 6.4 5.8 5.7 5.8
Cambodia 6.1 9.5 8.0 6.9 6.2
Namibia 6.2 6.6 6.8 6.8 7.0
Estonia 6.3 6.6 6.2 5.6 5.6
Barbados 6.3 6.2 5.9 5.9 6.1
Cote d'Ivoire 6.4 6.9 7.6 8.0 6.9
El Salvador 6.4 7.9 8.8 8.3 8.3
Armenia 6.4 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.7
Guinea-Bissau 6.4 7.0 6.7 7.1 5.8
Nicaragua 6.5 6.4 5.3 5.6 5.3
Costa Rica 6.5 6.7 6.4 7.1 6.8
Chile 6.5 7.0 7.0 7.5 7.7
Ireland 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.1 6.1
Haiti 6.6 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.7
Niger 6.6 6.3 6.7 7.0 6.9
Brazil 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.7 7.1
Czech Republic 6.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3
Belarus 6.7 6.2 6.6 6.0 6.2
United Kingdom 6.8 6.8 6.6 6.6 6.9
Colombia 6.8 8.2 9.0 8.7 8.7
Uzbekistan 6.8 7.2 6.9 6.4 5.5
Japan 6.8 7.0 6.9 7.2 7.4
Croatia 6.8 7.1 5.9 6.7 7.3
Bahamas, The 6.9 6.9 5.6 5.6 5.2
Grenada 6.9 7.0 7.3 7.3 7.8
Italy 7.1 7.2 7.4 7.5 7.6
New Zealand 7.1 7.0 7.2 7.7 7.5
Australia 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.8
Serbia 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.4 7.4
Hungary 7.3 7.1 6.8 7.2 7.3
Israel 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.6 7.3
Montenegro 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5
South Africa 7.4 8.0 8.3 8.6 8.9
Spain 7.4 7.5 7.3 7.3 7.3
Slovenia 7.5 7.6 7.8 7.8 7.8
Lesotho 7.5 7.5 6.7 6.8 6.8
Portugal 7.5 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.9
Belgium 7.6 7.9 7.8 7.9 8.1
Sao Tome and Principe 7.6 7.1 8.3 7.4 8.5
Andorra 7.6 6.6 6.6 8.0 6.0
Ukraine 7.7 7.0 6.9 6.6 5.9
Panama 7.7 7.2 7.1 7.1 6.9
Finland 7.8 8.0 7.7 7.4 7.4
Sweden 8.0 8.2 8.0 8.1 8.2
Denmark 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.2 9.0
Iceland 8.2 8.2 8.1 8.9 9.6
Argentina 8.3 8.0 8.4 8.5 9.4
Netherlands 8.3 8.2 7.9 8.1 8.1
Jordan 8.5 8.9 9.0 9.3 9.4
Tuvalu 8.5 11.4 8.5 8.4 9.0
Macedonia, FYR 8.5 8.7 9.2 10.1 8.8
Norway 8.6 9.1 9.4 10.1 10.1
Greece 8.6 8.6 8.4 8.4 8.6
Canada 9.0 8.8 8.8 9.0 8.9
Moldova 9.1 10.3 9.5 7.7 5.9
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 9.1 8.6 7.8 7.0 7.6
Switzerland 9.3 9.7 9.7 9.8 10.0
Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.4 11.6 8.1 8.0 8.9
Kiribati 9.4 9.2 9.4 7.0 8.8
Austria 9.6 9.5 9.8 10.0 10.2
Germany 10.1 10.4 10.3 10.3 10.4
France 10.4 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.2
Palau 11.4 11.6 11.4 10.0 11.1
United States 13.6 13.6 13.5 13.5 13.5
Lebanon 14.3 15.2 13.0 11.4 10.9
Sierra Leone 15.1 14.8 15.4 14.7 15.9
Uruguay 15.6 13.0 9.3 10.1 11.2
Marshall Islands 15.8 19.0 19.9 18.6 18.7
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Bermuda
Somalia
South Sudan
Puerto Rico
American Samoa
Northern Mariana Islands
Greenland
New Caledonia
Curacao
Isle of Man
West Bank and Gaza
Hong Kong SAR, China
St. Martin (French part)
Timor-Leste
Iraq 2.9 2.2 1.9 1.1
Macao SAR, China
Guam
Liechtenstein
French Polynesia
Liberia 5.9 6.0
Faeroe Islands
Afghanistan
Cayman Islands
Kosovo
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Aruba
Turks and Caicos Islands
Zimbabwe

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