Country name 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Indonesia 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.2 2.0
Myanmar 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.8
Vanuatu 2.3 2.8 3.6 3.2 3.3
United Arab Emirates 2.5 2.5 2.9 2.7 2.4
Pakistan 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8
Tanzania 2.8 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.6
Angola 2.8 3.5 3.3 3.4 2.8
Iraq 2.8 2.2 1.8 1.0 0.8
Singapore 2.9 2.8 3.1 2.8 2.7
Congo, Rep. 2.9 3.1 3.7 3.1 2.1
Turkey 2.9 3.1 3.6 4.8 4.9
Nigeria 2.9 2.9 3.5 3.4 2.8
Ethiopia 2.9 3.2 3.7 4.0 4.4
Malaysia 2.9 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.0
Saudi Arabia 2.9 3.0 3.3 4.1 4.2
Bangladesh 3.0 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
Solomon Islands 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.8 4.6
Congo, Dem. Rep. 3.0 3.6 4.3 3.8 1.4
Monaco 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.4 3.3
Papua New Guinea 3.1 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.0
Tajikistan 3.1 3.6 3.6 3.9 4.6
Guinea 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.4 3.5
Turkmenistan 3.1 5.0 5.0 3.9 3.9
Romania 3.2 4.2 3.8 4.2 4.3
Fiji 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.1 3.9
Algeria 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.5
Libya 3.4 3.5 3.9 3.6 3.4
Gambia, The 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.6
Gabon 3.4 3.0 4.2 3.5 2.9
Ghana 3.4 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.0
Sri Lanka 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.7 3.8
Kuwait 3.5 3.7 4.4 3.7 2.5
Morocco 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.2
Mauritius 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.8
Philippines 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.2 3.2
Mongolia 3.5 3.6 4.0 4.0 4.9
Oman 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.1
Belize 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.7 4.0
Iran, Islamic Rep. 3.6 4.0 4.4 4.4 4.5
Eritrea 3.7 4.2 4.3 4.7 4.1
Lao PDR 3.7 4.6 5.4 3.8 3.4
Qatar 3.7 3.1 3.4 2.9 2.2
Brunei Darussalam 3.7 3.7 4.5 3.8 3.1
Mauritania 3.7 3.9 4.6 5.3 5.3
Ecuador 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.4
China 3.8 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.6
Guatemala 3.9 4.0 3.9 4.3 5.3
Korea, Rep. 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.2
Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.9 4.6 4.9 5.3 5.6
India 3.9 4.2 4.3 4.0 4.3
Antigua and Barbuda 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.1
Djibouti 4.0 4.6 5.5 6.2 5.8
Togo 4.0 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.3
Bahrain 4.0 4.3 4.3 4.2 3.5
Botswana 4.0 4.3 3.9 3.7 4.6
Senegal 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.5 4.6
Yemen, Rep. 4.1 4.3 5.0 4.3 4.1
Kenya 4.1 4.1 4.5 4.2 4.7
Samoa 4.2 4.6 5.2 5.6 5.3
Thailand 4.2 4.4 4.1 3.9 3.8
Tonga 4.2 4.5 4.7 5.1 4.8
Mozambique 4.3 4.6 4.5 5.3 6.2
Kazakhstan 4.3 4.7 4.8 4.4 4.2
Rwanda 4.4 4.4 5.1 4.6 4.2
Sudan 4.4 4.2 4.1 3.8 3.2
Equatorial Guinea 4.4 3.2 4.3 2.8 2.7
Comoros 4.5 4.5 4.0 3.9 3.6
Central African Republic 4.5 3.6 3.7 4.1 4.2
Burundi 4.5 4.1 4.5 4.4 5.0
Peru 4.5 4.4 4.6 5.0 4.8
Madagascar 4.5 4.8 4.5 4.5 5.1
Bulgaria 4.6 4.7 4.7 5.9 6.1
Benin 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.3
Mexico 4.6 4.7 4.8 5.0 5.0
Malawi 4.6 5.2 5.5 6.5 6.1
Bolivia 4.6 4.2 5.1 6.2 5.7
Venezuela, RB 4.7 4.1 4.4 4.9 4.9
Jamaica 4.7 6.0 5.5 5.0 5.8
Trinidad and Tobago 4.7 4.6 4.2 4.7 4.2
Cabo Verde 4.8 4.7 5.2 4.6 4.8
Guyana 4.9 5.1 5.3 4.7 5.8
Honduras 5.0 4.9 5.6 6.2 6.6
Dominican Republic 5.0 5.3 5.4 5.7 5.9
Vietnam 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9
Barbados 5.1 5.1 4.9 5.0 5.2
Seychelles 5.1 5.6 4.9 5.0 4.6
San Marino 5.1 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.8
Burkina Faso 5.1 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.1
Cameroon 5.2 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.5
Cyprus 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.8
Cuba 5.3 5.5 5.8 6.0 6.1
Swaziland 5.4 5.1 5.5 5.3 5.3
Chad 5.4 5.6 5.4 5.9 6.3
Nepal 5.4 5.5 6.6 5.9 5.4
Tunisia 5.4 5.1 5.4 5.4 5.4
Syrian Arab Republic 5.5 5.3 5.1 5.2 4.9
Russian Federation 5.6 7.1 6.6 5.8 5.4
Lithuania 5.6 5.7 6.1 6.2 6.5
Luxembourg 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.8 7.5
Chile 5.7 5.8 6.2 6.4 6.4
Uganda 5.7 5.6 6.2 6.2 6.8
Kyrgyz Republic 5.7 5.2 5.9 5.3 4.7
Poland 5.8 5.5 5.9 5.7 5.5
Armenia 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.7 6.3
Dominica 5.9 6.0 5.7 5.8 4.7
Paraguay 5.9 6.2 6.3 6.8 8.1
Zambia 6.0 6.3 7.1 7.4 7.2
St. Kitts and Nevis 6.1 5.6 5.6 6.0 5.3
Malta 6.1 6.2 6.4 6.4 6.8
Andorra 6.1 6.1 7.8 5.7 5.8
Latvia 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.4 6.0
Azerbaijan 6.1 5.5 5.4 5.4 4.7
Belarus 6.2 6.6 6.0 6.2 6.1
Niger 6.3 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.0
Bhutan 6.3 7.4 7.2 6.9 6.9
Ireland 6.3 6.2 6.0 5.9 6.0
Maldives 6.4 6.4 7.5 7.4 8.0
Nicaragua 6.4 5.3 5.6 5.3 5.4
Czech Republic 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3
Slovak Republic 6.4 5.8 5.7 5.8 5.5
Haiti 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.7 6.1
Japan 6.5 6.7 7.0 7.3 7.5
Serbia 6.5 6.5 6.6 6.6 6.5
Estonia 6.6 6.2 5.6 5.9 5.3
Namibia 6.6 6.8 6.8 7.0 6.1
Costa Rica 6.7 6.4 7.1 6.8 7.1
Brazil 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.9 7.0
United Kingdom 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.8 6.9
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 6.7 7.5 6.8 6.5 3.7
Cote d'Ivoire 6.7 7.1 7.3 6.5 6.0
Ukraine 6.9 6.9 6.6 5.9 5.6
New Zealand 6.9 7.1 7.5 7.4 7.5
Bahamas, The 6.9 5.6 5.6 5.2 5.2
Guinea-Bissau 7.0 6.7 7.1 5.8 4.9
Grenada 7.0 7.3 7.3 7.8 6.6
Hungary 7.0 6.7 7.1 7.2 7.1
Croatia 7.0 5.8 6.6 7.2 7.7
St. Lucia 7.1 6.4 5.1 5.5 5.5
Sao Tome and Principe 7.1 8.3 7.4 8.5 8.9
Uzbekistan 7.1 6.8 6.3 5.5 5.3
Panama 7.2 7.1 7.1 6.9 7.8
Italy 7.2 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.9
Israel 7.4 7.6 7.4 7.2 7.1
Suriname 7.4 10.1 11.1 8.9 9.7
Cambodia 7.4 6.5 6.0 5.6 5.9
Albania 7.4 7.6 6.9 6.9 6.3
Montenegro 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.3
Australia 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.8 8.1
Spain 7.5 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.2
Netherlands 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.5 7.4
Georgia 7.5 8.0 6.5 6.3 6.9
Lesotho 7.5 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.9
Mali 7.6 6.9 6.2 6.0 6.3
El Salvador 7.6 8.2 8.4 8.2 8.2
Slovenia 7.6 7.8 7.8 7.8 8.3
Norway 7.7 8.2 9.1 9.1 8.3
Portugal 7.7 7.7 7.6 7.9 9.1
Belgium 7.9 7.8 7.9 8.1 8.1
Argentina 8.0 8.4 8.5 9.4 9.2
Finland 8.0 7.7 7.4 7.4 7.2
Colombia 8.2 9.0 8.7 8.7 5.9
Iceland 8.2 7.9 8.7 9.4 9.3
Greece 8.2 8.0 7.9 8.1 7.6
Sweden 8.2 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.2
Denmark 8.2 8.2 8.2 9.0 8.7
South Africa 8.5 8.6 8.5 8.5 8.1
Macedonia, FYR 8.6 9.1 10.0 8.8 8.5
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 8.6 7.8 6.9 7.6 7.9
Canada 8.6 8.6 8.8 8.7 8.7
Jordan 8.9 9.0 9.3 9.4 9.7
Kiribati 9.2 9.4 7.0 8.8 8.1
Austria 9.5 9.8 10.0 10.2 10.1
Switzerland 9.7 9.7 9.8 10.0 9.9
Germany 9.9 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.1
France 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.9 9.8
Bosnia and Herzegovina 10.2 8.1 8.1 8.9 7.1
Moldova 10.3 9.5 7.7 5.9 6.7
Uruguay 10.7 8.4 8.9 7.8 7.8
Sierra Leone 11.1 11.6 10.9 12.2 13.6
Tuvalu 11.4 8.3 8.8 9.3 15.7
Palau 11.7 11.3 9.9 11.3 9.5
United States 13.0 13.0 13.0 13.0 13.1
Lebanon 13.4 13.1 11.4 10.9 10.9
Marshall Islands 19.5 19.9 18.3 18.1 21.9
Isle of Man
Bermuda
Somalia
French Polynesia
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
American Samoa
Puerto Rico
South Sudan
Timor-Leste 3.3
Curacao
Northern Mariana Islands
West Bank and Gaza
New Caledonia
St. Martin (French part)
Guam
Hong Kong SAR, China
Macao SAR, China
Greenland
Liechtenstein
Faroe Islands
Liberia 5.9 6.0 5.9
Cayman Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Afghanistan
Aruba
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Zimbabwe 7.0

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