Country name 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Myanmar 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.8
Iraq 2.8 2.2 1.8 1.0 0.8
Indonesia 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.2 2.0
Bangladesh 3.0 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
Tanzania 2.8 2.8 2.5 2.7 2.6
Pakistan 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8
United Arab Emirates 2.5 2.5 2.9 2.7 2.4
Malaysia 2.9 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.0
Singapore 2.9 2.8 3.1 2.8 2.7
Monaco 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.4 3.3
Fiji 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.1 3.9
Philippines 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.2 3.2
Ghana 3.4 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.0
Saudi Arabia 2.9 3.0 3.3 4.1 4.2
Angola 2.8 3.5 3.3 3.4 2.8
Guinea 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.4 3.5
Qatar 3.7 3.1 3.4 2.9 2.2
Nigeria 2.9 2.9 3.5 3.4 2.8
Solomon Islands 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.8 4.6
Gambia, The 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.6
Tajikistan 3.1 3.6 3.6 3.9 4.6
Mauritius 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.8
Ecuador 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.4
Turkey 2.9 3.1 3.6 4.8 4.9
Algeria 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.5
Vanuatu 2.3 2.8 3.6 3.2 3.3
Oman 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.1
Sri Lanka 3.5 3.3 3.7 3.7 3.8
Ethiopia 2.9 3.2 3.7 4.0 4.4
Congo, Rep. 2.9 3.1 3.7 3.1 2.1
Central African Republic 4.5 3.6 3.7 4.1 4.2
Romania 3.2 4.2 3.8 4.2 4.3
Belize 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.7 4.0
Papua New Guinea 3.1 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.0
Botswana 4.0 4.3 3.9 3.7 4.6
Guatemala 3.9 4.0 3.9 4.3 5.3
Libya 3.4 3.5 3.9 3.6 3.4
Morocco 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.2
Togo 4.0 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.3
Antigua and Barbuda 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.1
Senegal 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.5 4.6
Korea, Rep. 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.2
Mongolia 3.5 3.6 4.0 4.0 4.9
Comoros 4.5 4.5 4.0 3.9 3.6
Sudan 4.4 4.2 4.1 3.8 3.2
Thailand 4.2 4.4 4.1 3.9 3.8
Trinidad and Tobago 4.7 4.6 4.2 4.7 4.2
Gabon 3.4 3.0 4.2 3.5 2.9
Congo, Dem. Rep. 3.0 3.6 4.3 3.8 1.4
Equatorial Guinea 4.4 3.2 4.3 2.8 2.7
Eritrea 3.7 4.2 4.3 4.7 4.1
India 3.9 4.2 4.3 4.0 4.3
Bahrain 4.0 4.3 4.3 4.2 3.5
China 3.8 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.6
Benin 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.3
Iran, Islamic Rep. 3.6 4.0 4.4 4.4 4.5
Cameroon 5.2 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.5
Kuwait 3.5 3.7 4.4 3.7 2.5
Venezuela, RB 4.7 4.1 4.4 4.9 4.9
Brunei Darussalam 3.7 3.7 4.5 3.8 3.1
Kenya 4.1 4.1 4.5 4.2 4.7
Burundi 4.5 4.1 4.5 4.4 5.0
Madagascar 4.5 4.8 4.5 4.5 5.1
Mozambique 4.3 4.6 4.5 5.3 6.2
Peru 4.5 4.4 4.6 5.0 4.8
Mauritania 3.7 3.9 4.6 5.3 5.3
Bulgaria 4.6 4.7 4.7 5.9 6.1
San Marino 5.1 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.8
Tonga 4.2 4.5 4.7 5.1 4.8
Mexico 4.6 4.7 4.8 5.0 5.0
Kazakhstan 4.3 4.7 4.8 4.4 4.2
Barbados 5.1 5.1 4.9 5.0 5.2
Vietnam 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9
Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.9 4.6 4.9 5.3 5.6
Seychelles 5.1 5.6 4.9 5.0 4.6
Yemen, Rep. 4.1 4.3 5.0 4.3 4.1
Turkmenistan 3.1 5.0 5.0 3.9 3.9
Rwanda 4.4 4.4 5.1 4.6 4.2
Bolivia 4.6 4.2 5.1 6.2 5.7
Syrian Arab Republic 5.5 5.3 5.1 5.2 4.9
St. Lucia 7.1 6.4 5.1 5.5 5.5
Samoa 4.2 4.6 5.2 5.6 5.3
Cabo Verde 4.8 4.7 5.2 4.6 4.8
Burkina Faso 5.1 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.1
Guyana 4.9 5.1 5.3 4.7 5.8
Tunisia 5.4 5.1 5.4 5.4 5.4
Chad 5.4 5.6 5.4 5.9 6.3
Lao PDR 3.7 4.6 5.4 3.8 3.4
Azerbaijan 6.1 5.5 5.4 5.4 4.7
Dominican Republic 5.0 5.3 5.4 5.7 5.9
Djibouti 4.0 4.6 5.5 6.2 5.8
Jamaica 4.7 6.0 5.5 5.0 5.8
Swaziland 5.4 5.1 5.5 5.3 5.3
Malawi 4.6 5.2 5.5 6.5 6.1
Estonia 6.6 6.2 5.6 5.9 5.3
Cyprus 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.8
Bahamas, The 6.9 5.6 5.6 5.2 5.2
St. Kitts and Nevis 6.1 5.6 5.6 6.0 5.3
Nicaragua 6.4 5.3 5.6 5.3 5.4
Honduras 5.0 4.9 5.6 6.2 6.6
Slovak Republic 6.4 5.8 5.7 5.8 5.5
Luxembourg 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.8 7.5
Dominica 5.9 6.0 5.7 5.8 4.7
Armenia 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.7 6.3
Cuba 5.3 5.5 5.8 6.0 6.1
Poland 5.8 5.5 5.9 5.7 5.5
Kyrgyz Republic 5.7 5.2 5.9 5.3 4.7
Liberia 5.9 6.0 5.9
Belarus 6.2 6.6 6.0 6.2 6.1
Haiti 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.7 6.1
Ireland 6.3 6.2 6.0 5.9 6.0
Cambodia 7.4 6.5 6.0 5.6 5.9
Lithuania 5.6 5.7 6.1 6.2 6.5
Latvia 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.4 6.0
Uganda 5.7 5.6 6.2 6.2 6.8
Mali 7.6 6.9 6.2 6.0 6.3
Chile 5.7 5.8 6.2 6.4 6.4
Paraguay 5.9 6.2 6.3 6.8 8.1
Uzbekistan 7.1 6.8 6.3 5.5 5.3
Czech Republic 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3
Malta 6.1 6.2 6.4 6.4 6.8
Georgia 7.5 8.0 6.5 6.3 6.9
Brazil 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.9 7.0
United Kingdom 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.8 6.9
Serbia 6.5 6.5 6.6 6.6 6.5
Croatia 7.0 5.8 6.6 7.2 7.7
Ukraine 6.9 6.9 6.6 5.9 5.6
Nepal 5.4 5.5 6.6 5.9 5.4
Russian Federation 5.6 7.1 6.6 5.8 5.4
Niger 6.3 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.0
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 6.7 7.5 6.8 6.5 3.7
Namibia 6.6 6.8 6.8 7.0 6.1
Lesotho 7.5 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.9
Albania 7.4 7.6 6.9 6.9 6.3
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 8.6 7.8 6.9 7.6 7.9
Kiribati 9.2 9.4 7.0 8.8 8.1
Japan 6.5 6.7 7.0 7.3 7.5
Guinea-Bissau 7.0 6.7 7.1 5.8 4.9
Zambia 6.0 6.3 7.1 7.4 7.2
Hungary 7.0 6.7 7.1 7.2 7.1
Panama 7.2 7.1 7.1 6.9 7.8
Costa Rica 6.7 6.4 7.1 6.8 7.1
Bhutan 6.3 7.4 7.2 6.9 6.9
Cote d'Ivoire 6.7 7.1 7.3 6.5 6.0
Spain 7.5 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.2
Grenada 7.0 7.3 7.3 7.8 6.6
Finland 8.0 7.7 7.4 7.4 7.2
Sao Tome and Principe 7.1 8.3 7.4 8.5 8.9
Israel 7.4 7.6 7.4 7.2 7.1
Montenegro 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.3
Maldives 6.4 6.4 7.5 7.4 8.0
New Zealand 6.9 7.1 7.5 7.4 7.5
Italy 7.2 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.9
Netherlands 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.5 7.4
Portugal 7.7 7.7 7.6 7.9 9.1
Australia 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.8 8.1
Moldova 10.3 9.5 7.7 5.9 6.7
Andorra 6.1 6.1 7.8 5.7 5.8
Slovenia 7.6 7.8 7.8 7.8 8.3
Belgium 7.9 7.8 7.9 8.1 8.1
Greece 8.2 8.0 7.9 8.1 7.6
Sweden 8.2 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.2
Bosnia and Herzegovina 10.2 8.1 8.1 8.9 7.1
Denmark 8.2 8.2 8.2 9.0 8.7
El Salvador 7.6 8.2 8.4 8.2 8.2
South Africa 8.5 8.6 8.5 8.5 8.1
Argentina 8.0 8.4 8.5 9.4 9.2
Colombia 8.2 9.0 8.7 8.7 5.9
Iceland 8.2 7.9 8.7 9.4 9.3
Tuvalu 11.4 8.3 8.8 9.3 15.7
Canada 8.6 8.6 8.8 8.7 8.7
Uruguay 10.7 8.4 8.9 7.8 7.8
Norway 7.7 8.2 9.1 9.1 8.3
Jordan 8.9 9.0 9.3 9.4 9.7
Switzerland 9.7 9.7 9.8 10.0 9.9
France 10.1 10.0 9.9 9.9 9.8
Palau 11.7 11.3 9.9 11.3 9.5
Macedonia, FYR 8.6 9.1 10.0 8.8 8.5
Austria 9.5 9.8 10.0 10.2 10.1
Germany 9.9 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.1
Sierra Leone 11.1 11.6 10.9 12.2 13.6
Suriname 7.4 10.1 11.1 8.9 9.7
Lebanon 13.4 13.1 11.4 10.9 10.9
United States 13.0 13.0 13.0 13.0 13.1
Marshall Islands 19.5 19.9 18.3 18.1 21.9
Guam
West Bank and Gaza
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Curacao
Puerto Rico
St. Martin (French part)
Timor-Leste 3.3
Somalia
Northern Mariana Islands
Bermuda
New Caledonia
American Samoa
South Sudan
Hong Kong SAR, China
French Polynesia
Greenland
Macao SAR, China
Liechtenstein
Faroe Islands
Afghanistan
Cayman Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Aruba
Isle of Man
Zimbabwe 7.0

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