Country name 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Indonesia 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.3
Myanmar 2.1 2.1 1.8 1.8 1.8
United Arab Emirates 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.5
Vanuatu 2.6 2.3 3.3 3.9 3.5
Nigeria 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.5 3.4
Malaysia 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.0
Saudi Arabia 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.3 4.1
Singapore 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.1 2.8
Brunei Darussalam 2.9 3.7 3.7 4.4 4.1
Ethiopia 3.0 3.0 3.3 3.8 4.0
Tajikistan 3.1 3.1 3.6 3.6 3.9
Turkmenistan 3.1 3.1 5.0 5.0 3.9
Monaco 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.4
Ghana 3.1 3.4 3.0 3.2 3.1
Fiji 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.1
Mongolia 3.2 3.5 3.6 4.0 4.0
Congo, Rep. 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.7 3.1
Romania 3.2 3.2 4.2 3.8 4.2
Solomon Islands 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. 3.3 3.0 3.6 4.3 3.8
Gambia, The 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.6
Pakistan 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.7
Libya 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.9 3.6
Turkey 3.4 3.9 4.2 3.6 4.8
Ecuador 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.6 4.0
Sri Lanka 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.7 3.6
Gabon 3.4 3.4 3.0 4.2 3.5
Philippines 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.2
Papua New Guinea 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.8 4.1
Bangladesh 3.5 3.5 2.6 2.6 2.6
Guinea 3.5 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.4
Thailand 3.5 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.5
China 3.5 3.8 4.0 4.4 4.5
Mauritius 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5
Tanzania 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.2
Oman 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.5
Sudan 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.0 3.8
Algeria 3.7 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.4
Qatar 3.7 3.6 3.2 3.4 2.9
Kuwait 3.8 3.5 3.7 4.4 3.7
Iran, Islamic Rep. 3.8 3.7 4.1 4.5 4.6
Bhutan 3.8 6.2 7.2 7.0 6.7
Korea, Rep. 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.4
Cameroon 3.9 5.2 4.6 4.4 4.4
Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.9 4.3 5.0 5.1 5.3
Central African Republic 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.8 4.1
Morocco 3.9 3.8 4.1 3.9 4.0
Senegal 3.9 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.5
Djibouti 4.0 4.0 4.6 5.5 6.2
Guatemala 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.4
India 4.1 3.9 4.3 4.3 4.1
Jamaica 4.1 4.7 6.0 5.1 4.7
Madagascar 4.1 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.5
Tonga 4.1 4.2 4.5 4.7 5.1
Yemen, Rep. 4.1 4.1 4.1 5.0 4.3
Lao PDR 4.1 4.6 6.3 6.4 3.7
Bahrain 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.3 4.2
Botswana 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.0 3.8
Venezuela, RB 4.2 3.5 3.9 4.5 5.7
Belize 4.2 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.7
Kenya 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.5 4.2
Rwanda 4.3 4.4 4.4 5.1 4.6
Burkina Faso 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.7 5.3
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 4.5 4.4 4.7 4.2 4.2
Bolivia 4.5 4.6 4.4 5.1 6.2
Eritrea 4.5 3.7 4.2 4.3 4.7
Comoros 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.0 3.8
Peru 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.6 5.0
Togo 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.7
Kazakhstan 4.6 4.3 4.7 4.8 4.4
Mauritania 4.6 3.7 3.9 4.6 5.3
Trinidad and Tobago 4.7 4.3 4.2 3.7 4.3
Benin 4.7 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.6
Cyprus 4.7 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.6
St. Lucia 4.7 5.5 5.0 5.1 5.5
Zambia 4.8 5.3 5.5 5.7 7.0
Angola 4.8 3.4 4.6 4.7 4.1
Malawi 4.9 4.7 5.2 5.5 6.5
Antigua and Barbuda 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.0
Swaziland 5.0 5.4 5.1 5.5 5.3
Seychelles 5.0 5.1 5.6 5.0 5.1
Guyana 5.1 4.9 5.1 5.3 4.7
Georgia 5.1 7.5 8.0 6.5 6.3
Mexico 5.1 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.1
Cuba 5.2 5.3 5.5 5.8 6.0
Samoa 5.2 4.7 5.2 5.8 6.3
Vietnam 5.2 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.9
Suriname 5.2 7.4 7.8 8.6 6.8
Barbados 5.2 5.1 5.1 4.9 5.0
Mali 5.2 7.8 7.0 6.2 6.0
Bulgaria 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.2 6.0
San Marino 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0
Cabo Verde 5.3 4.8 4.7 5.2 4.6
Mozambique 5.3 4.3 4.6 4.5 5.3
Cambodia 5.3 7.2 6.3 5.9 5.5
Nepal 5.3 5.4 5.5 6.6 5.9
Honduras 5.3 5.0 4.9 5.6 6.2
Russian Federation 5.4 5.6 7.1 6.6 5.8
Lithuania 5.4 5.6 5.7 6.1 6.2
Equatorial Guinea 5.4 4.4 3.2 4.3 2.8
St. Kitts and Nevis 5.4 5.4 5.1 5.1 5.3
Burundi 5.5 5.4 5.0 5.7 5.6
Poland 5.5 5.9 5.6 5.9 5.7
Syrian Arab Republic 5.5 5.5 5.3 5.1 5.2
Dominican Republic 5.5 5.3 5.7 5.8 5.9
Luxembourg 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.8
Malta 5.6 6.0 6.3 6.4 6.4
Maldives 5.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.6
Latvia 5.8 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.4
Chad 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.9
Azerbaijan 5.8 6.1 5.5 5.4 5.4
Dominica 5.8 5.9 6.0 5.7 5.8
Tunisia 5.9 5.4 5.1 5.4 5.4
Paraguay 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.8
Niger 6.0 5.7 6.1 6.3 6.3
Kyrgyz Republic 6.0 5.7 5.2 5.9 5.3
Chile 6.0 6.5 6.7 7.2 7.3
Andorra 6.0 6.3 6.3 7.8 5.8
Slovak Republic 6.1 6.4 5.8 5.7 5.8
Namibia 6.2 6.6 6.8 6.8 7.0
Estonia 6.3 6.6 6.2 5.6 5.9
El Salvador 6.4 7.6 8.1 8.2 8.0
Cote d'Ivoire 6.4 6.8 7.1 7.3 6.5
Armenia 6.4 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.7
Guinea-Bissau 6.4 7.0 6.7 7.1 5.8
Nicaragua 6.5 6.4 5.3 5.6 5.3
Costa Rica 6.5 6.7 6.4 7.1 6.8
Ireland 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.1 6.1
Haiti 6.6 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.7
Brazil 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.7 7.1
Czech Republic 6.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3
United Kingdom 6.7 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.8
Serbia 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.8
Belarus 6.7 6.2 6.6 6.0 6.2
Colombia 6.8 8.2 9.0 8.7 8.7
Japan 6.8 7.0 6.9 7.2 7.4
Croatia 6.8 7.1 5.9 6.7 7.3
Bahamas, The 6.9 6.9 5.6 5.6 5.2
Grenada 6.9 7.0 7.3 7.3 7.8
Uzbekistan 6.9 7.3 7.3 6.4 5.5
New Zealand 7.0 6.9 7.2 7.6 7.5
Italy 7.1 7.2 7.4 7.5 7.6
Australia 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.8
Hungary 7.3 7.1 6.8 7.2 7.3
Israel 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.4 7.2
Montenegro 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5
South Africa 7.4 8.0 8.3 8.6 8.9
Spain 7.4 7.5 7.3 7.3 7.3
Lesotho 7.5 7.5 6.7 6.8 6.8
Slovenia 7.5 7.6 7.8 7.8 7.8
Portugal 7.5 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.9
Belgium 7.6 7.9 7.8 7.9 8.1
Sao Tome and Principe 7.6 7.1 8.3 7.4 8.5
Ukraine 7.7 7.0 6.9 6.6 5.9
Panama 7.7 7.2 7.1 7.1 6.9
Finland 7.8 8.0 7.7 7.4 7.4
Norway 7.9 7.8 8.4 9.3 9.3
Sweden 8.0 8.2 8.0 8.1 8.2
Denmark 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.2 9.0
Iceland 8.2 8.2 8.1 8.9 9.6
Argentina 8.3 8.0 8.4 8.5 9.4
Netherlands 8.3 8.2 7.9 8.1 8.1
Macedonia, FYR 8.4 8.6 9.1 10.0 8.8
Jordan 8.5 8.9 9.0 9.3 9.4
Tuvalu 8.5 11.4 8.5 8.4 9.0
Uganda 8.5 6.9 6.6 6.5 6.5
Canada 8.9 8.6 8.6 8.8 8.7
Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.0 10.2 8.0 8.0 8.9
Moldova 9.1 10.3 9.5 7.7 5.9
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 9.1 8.6 7.8 7.0 7.6
Switzerland 9.3 9.7 9.7 9.8 10.0
Kiribati 9.4 9.2 9.4 7.0 8.8
Albania 9.6 7.4 7.6 6.9 6.9
Austria 9.6 9.5 9.8 10.0 10.2
Greece 9.6 9.6 9.4 9.4 9.6
Germany 10.1 10.4 10.3 10.3 10.4
France 10.4 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.2
Sierra Leone 11.0 10.8 11.2 10.6 11.8
Palau 11.4 11.6 11.4 10.0 11.1
United States 13.2 13.1 13.0 13.1 13.1
Lebanon 14.3 15.2 13.0 11.5 10.9
Uruguay 15.6 13.0 9.3 10.1 11.2
Marshall Islands 15.8 19.0 19.9 18.6 18.7
Northern Mariana Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Greenland
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Cayman Islands
Taiwan, China
Somalia
Iraq 2.9 2.2 1.9 1.1
Isle of Man
French Polynesia
Curacao
Liberia 5.9 6.0
Afghanistan
West Bank and Gaza
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
St. Martin (French part)
Puerto Rico
South Sudan
Bermuda
Macao SAR, China
Liechtenstein
Timor-Leste
New Caledonia
Aruba
Faeroe Islands
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Hong Kong SAR, China
American Samoa
Guam
Zimbabwe

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