Country name 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Indonesia 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.3
Myanmar 2.1 2.1 1.8 1.8 1.8
United Arab Emirates 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.5
Vanuatu 2.6 2.3 3.3 3.9 3.5
Nigeria 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.5 3.4
Malaysia 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.0
Saudi Arabia 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.3 4.1
Singapore 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.1 2.8
Brunei Darussalam 2.9 3.7 3.7 4.4 4.1
Ethiopia 3.0 3.0 3.3 3.8 4.0
Tajikistan 3.1 3.1 3.6 3.6 3.9
Turkmenistan 3.1 3.1 5.0 5.0 3.9
Monaco 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.4
Ghana 3.1 3.4 3.0 3.2 3.1
Fiji 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.1
Mongolia 3.2 3.5 3.6 4.0 4.0
Congo, Rep. 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.7 3.1
Romania 3.2 3.2 4.2 3.8 4.2
Solomon Islands 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. 3.3 3.0 3.6 4.3 3.8
Gambia, The 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.6
Pakistan 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.7
Libya 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.9 3.6
Turkey 3.4 3.9 4.2 3.6 4.8
Ecuador 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.6 4.0
Sri Lanka 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.7 3.6
Gabon 3.4 3.4 3.0 4.2 3.5
Philippines 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.2
Papua New Guinea 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.8 4.1
Bangladesh 3.5 3.5 2.6 2.6 2.6
Guinea 3.5 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.4
Thailand 3.5 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.5
China 3.5 3.8 4.0 4.4 4.5
Mauritius 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5
Tanzania 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.2
Oman 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.5
Sudan 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.0 3.8
Algeria 3.7 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.4
Qatar 3.7 3.6 3.2 3.4 2.9
Kuwait 3.8 3.5 3.7 4.4 3.7
Iran, Islamic Rep. 3.8 3.7 4.1 4.5 4.6
Bhutan 3.8 6.2 7.2 7.0 6.7
Korea, Rep. 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.4
Cameroon 3.9 5.2 4.6 4.4 4.4
Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.9 4.3 5.0 5.1 5.3
Central African Republic 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.8 4.1
Morocco 3.9 3.8 4.1 3.9 4.0
Senegal 3.9 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.5
Djibouti 4.0 4.0 4.6 5.5 6.2
Guatemala 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.4
India 4.1 3.9 4.3 4.3 4.1
Jamaica 4.1 4.7 6.0 5.1 4.7
Madagascar 4.1 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.5
Tonga 4.1 4.2 4.5 4.7 5.1
Yemen, Rep. 4.1 4.1 4.1 5.0 4.3
Lao PDR 4.1 4.6 6.3 6.4 3.7
Bahrain 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.3 4.2
Botswana 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.0 3.8
Venezuela, RB 4.2 3.5 3.9 4.5 5.7
Belize 4.2 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.7
Kenya 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.5 4.2
Rwanda 4.3 4.4 4.4 5.1 4.6
Burkina Faso 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.7 5.3
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 4.5 4.4 4.7 4.2 4.2
Bolivia 4.5 4.6 4.4 5.1 6.2
Eritrea 4.5 3.7 4.2 4.3 4.7
Comoros 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.0 3.8
Peru 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.6 5.0
Togo 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.7
Kazakhstan 4.6 4.3 4.7 4.8 4.4
Mauritania 4.6 3.7 3.9 4.6 5.3
Trinidad and Tobago 4.7 4.3 4.2 3.7 4.3
Benin 4.7 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.6
Cyprus 4.7 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.6
St. Lucia 4.7 5.5 5.0 5.1 5.5
Zambia 4.8 5.3 5.5 5.7 7.0
Angola 4.8 3.4 4.6 4.7 4.1
Malawi 4.9 4.7 5.2 5.5 6.5
Antigua and Barbuda 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.0
Swaziland 5.0 5.4 5.1 5.5 5.3
Seychelles 5.0 5.1 5.6 5.0 5.1
Guyana 5.1 4.9 5.1 5.3 4.7
Georgia 5.1 7.5 8.0 6.5 6.3
Mexico 5.1 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.1
Cuba 5.2 5.3 5.5 5.8 6.0
Samoa 5.2 4.7 5.2 5.8 6.3
Vietnam 5.2 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.9
Suriname 5.2 7.4 7.8 8.6 6.8
Barbados 5.2 5.1 5.1 4.9 5.0
Mali 5.2 7.8 7.0 6.2 6.0
Bulgaria 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.2 6.0
San Marino 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0
Cabo Verde 5.3 4.8 4.7 5.2 4.6
Mozambique 5.3 4.3 4.6 4.5 5.3
Cambodia 5.3 7.2 6.3 5.9 5.5
Nepal 5.3 5.4 5.5 6.6 5.9
Honduras 5.3 5.0 4.9 5.6 6.2
Russian Federation 5.4 5.6 7.1 6.6 5.8
Lithuania 5.4 5.6 5.7 6.1 6.2
Equatorial Guinea 5.4 4.4 3.2 4.3 2.8
St. Kitts and Nevis 5.4 5.4 5.1 5.1 5.3
Burundi 5.5 5.4 5.0 5.7 5.6
Poland 5.5 5.9 5.6 5.9 5.7
Syrian Arab Republic 5.5 5.5 5.3 5.1 5.2
Dominican Republic 5.5 5.3 5.7 5.8 5.9
Luxembourg 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.8
Malta 5.6 6.0 6.3 6.4 6.4
Maldives 5.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.6
Latvia 5.8 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.4
Chad 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.9
Azerbaijan 5.8 6.1 5.5 5.4 5.4
Dominica 5.8 5.9 6.0 5.7 5.8
Tunisia 5.9 5.4 5.1 5.4 5.4
Paraguay 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.8
Niger 6.0 5.7 6.1 6.3 6.3
Kyrgyz Republic 6.0 5.7 5.2 5.9 5.3
Chile 6.0 6.5 6.7 7.2 7.3
Andorra 6.0 6.3 6.3 7.8 5.8
Slovak Republic 6.1 6.4 5.8 5.7 5.8
Namibia 6.2 6.6 6.8 6.8 7.0
Estonia 6.3 6.6 6.2 5.6 5.9
El Salvador 6.4 7.6 8.1 8.2 8.0
Cote d'Ivoire 6.4 6.8 7.1 7.3 6.5
Armenia 6.4 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.7
Guinea-Bissau 6.4 7.0 6.7 7.1 5.8
Nicaragua 6.5 6.4 5.3 5.6 5.3
Costa Rica 6.5 6.7 6.4 7.1 6.8
Ireland 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.1 6.1
Haiti 6.6 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.7
Brazil 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.7 7.1
Czech Republic 6.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3
United Kingdom 6.7 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.8
Serbia 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.8
Belarus 6.7 6.2 6.6 6.0 6.2
Colombia 6.8 8.2 9.0 8.7 8.7
Japan 6.8 7.0 6.9 7.2 7.4
Croatia 6.8 7.1 5.9 6.7 7.3
Bahamas, The 6.9 6.9 5.6 5.6 5.2
Grenada 6.9 7.0 7.3 7.3 7.8
Uzbekistan 6.9 7.3 7.3 6.4 5.5
New Zealand 7.0 6.9 7.2 7.6 7.5
Italy 7.1 7.2 7.4 7.5 7.6
Australia 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.8
Hungary 7.3 7.1 6.8 7.2 7.3
Israel 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.4 7.2
Montenegro 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5
South Africa 7.4 8.0 8.3 8.6 8.9
Spain 7.4 7.5 7.3 7.3 7.3
Lesotho 7.5 7.5 6.7 6.8 6.8
Slovenia 7.5 7.6 7.8 7.8 7.8
Portugal 7.5 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.9
Belgium 7.6 7.9 7.8 7.9 8.1
Sao Tome and Principe 7.6 7.1 8.3 7.4 8.5
Ukraine 7.7 7.0 6.9 6.6 5.9
Panama 7.7 7.2 7.1 7.1 6.9
Finland 7.8 8.0 7.7 7.4 7.4
Norway 7.9 7.8 8.4 9.3 9.3
Sweden 8.0 8.2 8.0 8.1 8.2
Denmark 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.2 9.0
Iceland 8.2 8.2 8.1 8.9 9.6
Argentina 8.3 8.0 8.4 8.5 9.4
Netherlands 8.3 8.2 7.9 8.1 8.1
Macedonia, FYR 8.4 8.6 9.1 10.0 8.8
Jordan 8.5 8.9 9.0 9.3 9.4
Tuvalu 8.5 11.4 8.5 8.4 9.0
Uganda 8.5 6.9 6.6 6.5 6.5
Canada 8.9 8.6 8.6 8.8 8.7
Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.0 10.2 8.0 8.0 8.9
Moldova 9.1 10.3 9.5 7.7 5.9
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 9.1 8.6 7.8 7.0 7.6
Switzerland 9.3 9.7 9.7 9.8 10.0
Kiribati 9.4 9.2 9.4 7.0 8.8
Albania 9.6 7.4 7.6 6.9 6.9
Austria 9.6 9.5 9.8 10.0 10.2
Greece 9.6 9.6 9.4 9.4 9.6
Germany 10.1 10.4 10.3 10.3 10.4
France 10.4 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.2
Sierra Leone 11.0 10.8 11.2 10.6 11.8
Palau 11.4 11.6 11.4 10.0 11.1
United States 13.2 13.1 13.0 13.1 13.1
Lebanon 14.3 15.2 13.0 11.5 10.9
Uruguay 15.6 13.0 9.3 10.1 11.2
Marshall Islands 15.8 19.0 19.9 18.6 18.7
Somalia
Aruba
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
South Sudan
Puerto Rico
Afghanistan
Northern Mariana Islands
French Polynesia
New Caledonia
Cayman Islands
Iraq 2.9 2.2 1.9 1.1
West Bank and Gaza
Guam
St. Martin (French part)
Timor-Leste
Hong Kong SAR, China
Macao SAR, China
Greenland
Liechtenstein
Faeroe Islands
Liberia 5.9 6.0
Curacao
Middle East (developing only)
Bermuda
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Isle of Man
American Samoa
Turks and Caicos Islands
Zimbabwe

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