Country name 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Marshall Islands 15.8 19.0 19.9 18.6 18.7
Uruguay 15.6 13.0 9.3 10.1 11.2
Lebanon 14.3 15.2 13.0 11.5 10.9
United States 13.2 13.1 13.0 13.1 13.1
Palau 11.4 11.6 11.4 10.0 11.1
Sierra Leone 11.0 10.8 11.2 10.6 11.8
France 10.4 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.2
Germany 10.1 10.4 10.3 10.3 10.4
Greece 9.6 9.6 9.4 9.4 9.6
Austria 9.6 9.5 9.8 10.0 10.2
Albania 9.6 7.4 7.6 6.9 6.9
Kiribati 9.4 9.2 9.4 7.0 8.8
Switzerland 9.3 9.7 9.7 9.8 10.0
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 9.1 8.6 7.8 7.0 7.6
Moldova 9.1 10.3 9.5 7.7 5.9
Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.0 10.2 8.0 8.0 8.9
Canada 8.9 8.6 8.6 8.8 8.7
Uganda 8.5 6.9 6.6 6.5 6.5
Tuvalu 8.5 11.4 8.5 8.4 9.0
Jordan 8.5 8.9 9.0 9.3 9.4
Macedonia, FYR 8.4 8.6 9.1 10.0 8.8
Netherlands 8.3 8.2 7.9 8.1 8.1
Iceland 8.2 8.2 8.1 8.9 9.6
Denmark 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.2 9.0
Sweden 8.0 8.2 8.0 8.1 8.2
Norway 7.9 7.8 8.4 9.3 9.3
Finland 7.8 8.0 7.7 7.4 7.4
Panama 7.7 7.2 7.1 7.1 6.9
Ukraine 7.7 7.0 6.9 6.6 5.9
Sao Tome and Principe 7.6 7.1 8.3 7.4 8.5
Belgium 7.6 7.9 7.8 7.9 8.1
Portugal 7.5 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.9
Slovenia 7.5 7.6 7.8 7.8 7.8
Lesotho 7.5 7.5 6.7 6.8 6.8
Spain 7.4 7.5 7.3 7.3 7.3
South Africa 7.4 8.0 8.3 8.6 8.9
Montenegro 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5
Israel 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.4 7.2
Hungary 7.3 7.1 6.8 7.2 7.3
Australia 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.8
Italy 7.1 7.2 7.4 7.5 7.6
New Zealand 7.0 6.9 7.2 7.6 7.5
Uzbekistan 6.9 7.3 7.3 6.4 5.5
Grenada 6.9 7.0 7.3 7.3 7.8
Argentina 6.9 6.6 6.9 7.0 7.7
Bahamas, The 6.9 6.9 5.6 5.6 5.2
Croatia 6.8 7.1 5.9 6.7 7.3
Japan 6.8 7.0 6.9 7.2 7.4
Colombia 6.8 8.2 9.0 8.7 8.7
Belarus 6.7 6.2 6.6 6.0 6.2
Serbia 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.8
United Kingdom 6.7 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.8
Czech Republic 6.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3
Brazil 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.7 7.1
Haiti 6.6 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.7
Ireland 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.1 6.1
Costa Rica 6.5 6.7 6.4 7.1 6.8
Nicaragua 6.5 6.4 5.3 5.6 5.3
Guinea-Bissau 6.4 7.0 6.7 7.1 5.8
Armenia 6.4 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.7
Cote d'Ivoire 6.4 6.8 7.1 7.3 6.5
El Salvador 6.4 7.6 8.1 8.2 8.0
Estonia 6.3 6.6 6.2 5.6 5.9
Namibia 6.2 6.6 6.8 6.8 7.0
Slovak Republic 6.1 6.4 5.8 5.7 5.8
Andorra 6.0 6.3 6.3 7.8 5.8
Chile 6.0 6.5 6.7 7.2 7.3
Kyrgyz Republic 6.0 5.7 5.2 5.9 5.3
Niger 6.0 5.7 6.1 6.3 6.3
Paraguay 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.8
Dominica 5.9 6.0 6.1 5.9 5.9
Tunisia 5.9 5.4 5.1 5.4 5.4
Azerbaijan 5.8 6.1 5.5 5.4 5.4
Chad 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.9
Latvia 5.8 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.4
Maldives 5.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.6
Malta 5.6 6.0 6.3 6.4 6.4
Luxembourg 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.8
Dominican Republic 5.5 5.3 5.7 5.8 5.9
Syrian Arab Republic 5.5 5.5 5.3 5.1 5.2
Poland 5.5 5.9 5.6 5.9 5.7
Burundi 5.5 5.4 5.0 5.7 5.6
St. Kitts and Nevis 5.4 5.4 5.1 5.1 5.3
Equatorial Guinea 5.4 4.4 3.2 4.3 2.8
Lithuania 5.4 5.6 5.7 6.1 6.2
Russian Federation 5.4 5.6 7.1 6.6 5.8
Honduras 5.3 5.0 4.9 5.6 6.2
Nepal 5.3 5.4 5.5 6.6 5.9
Cambodia 5.3 7.2 6.3 5.9 5.5
Mozambique 5.3 4.3 4.6 4.5 5.3
Cabo Verde 5.3 4.8 4.7 5.2 4.6
San Marino 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0
Bulgaria 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.2 6.0
Mali 5.2 7.8 7.0 6.2 6.0
Barbados 5.2 5.1 5.1 4.9 5.0
Vietnam 5.2 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.9
Samoa 5.2 4.7 5.2 5.8 6.3
Cuba 5.2 5.3 5.5 5.8 6.0
Mexico 5.1 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.1
Georgia 5.1 7.5 8.0 6.5 6.3
Guyana 5.1 4.9 5.1 5.3 4.7
Seychelles 5.0 5.1 5.6 5.0 5.1
Swaziland 5.0 5.4 5.1 5.5 5.3
Antigua and Barbuda 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.0
Malawi 4.9 4.7 5.2 5.5 6.5
Angola 4.8 3.4 4.6 4.7 4.1
Zambia 4.8 5.3 5.5 5.7 7.0
St. Lucia 4.7 5.5 5.0 5.1 5.5
Cyprus 4.7 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.6
Benin 4.7 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.6
Trinidad and Tobago 4.7 4.3 4.2 3.7 4.3
Mauritania 4.6 3.7 3.9 4.6 5.3
Kazakhstan 4.6 4.3 4.7 4.8 4.4
Togo 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.7
Peru 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.6 5.0
Comoros 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.0 3.8
Eritrea 4.5 3.7 4.2 4.3 4.7
Bolivia 4.5 4.6 4.4 5.1 6.2
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 4.5 4.4 4.7 4.2 4.2
Burkina Faso 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.7 5.3
Rwanda 4.3 4.4 4.4 5.1 4.6
Kenya 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.5 4.2
Belize 4.2 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.7
Venezuela, RB 4.2 3.5 3.9 4.5 5.7
Botswana 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.0 3.8
Bahrain 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.3 4.2
Lao PDR 4.1 4.6 6.3 6.4 3.7
Yemen, Rep. 4.1 4.1 4.1 5.0 4.3
Tonga 4.1 4.2 4.5 4.7 5.1
Madagascar 4.1 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.5
Jamaica 4.1 4.7 6.0 5.1 4.7
India 4.1 3.9 4.3 4.3 4.1
Senegal 3.9 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.5
Morocco 3.9 3.8 4.1 3.9 4.0
Central African Republic 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.8 4.1
Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.9 4.3 5.0 5.1 5.3
Cameroon 3.9 5.2 4.6 4.4 4.4
Korea, Rep. 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.4
Bhutan 3.8 6.2 7.2 7.0 6.7
Suriname 3.8 5.5 5.8 5.5 5.1
Iran, Islamic Rep. 3.8 3.7 4.1 4.5 4.6
Kuwait 3.8 3.5 3.7 4.4 3.7
Qatar 3.7 3.6 3.2 3.4 2.9
Algeria 3.7 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.4
Sudan 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.0 3.8
Guatemala 3.7 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.9
Oman 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.5
Tanzania 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.2
Mauritius 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5
Djibouti 3.6 3.6 4.6 5.5 6.2
China 3.5 3.8 4.0 4.4 4.5
Thailand 3.5 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.5
Guinea 3.5 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.4
Bangladesh 3.5 3.5 2.6 2.6 2.6
Papua New Guinea 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.8 4.1
Philippines 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.2
Gabon 3.4 3.4 3.0 4.2 3.5
Sri Lanka 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.7 3.6
Ecuador 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.6 4.0
Turkey 3.4 3.9 4.2 3.6 4.8
Libya 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.9 3.6
Pakistan 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.7
Gambia, The 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.6
Congo, Dem. Rep. 3.3 3.0 3.6 4.3 3.8
Solomon Islands 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.8
Romania 3.2 3.2 4.2 3.8 4.2
Congo, Rep. 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.7 3.1
Mongolia 3.2 3.5 3.6 4.0 4.0
Fiji 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.1
Ghana 3.1 3.4 3.0 3.2 3.1
Monaco 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.4
Turkmenistan 3.1 3.1 5.0 5.0 3.9
Tajikistan 3.1 3.1 3.6 3.6 3.9
Ethiopia 3.0 3.0 3.3 3.8 4.0
Brunei Darussalam 2.9 3.7 3.7 4.4 4.1
Singapore 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.1 2.8
Saudi Arabia 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.3 4.1
Malaysia 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.0
Nigeria 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.5 3.4
Vanuatu 2.6 2.3 3.3 3.9 3.5
United Arab Emirates 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.5
Myanmar 2.1 2.1 1.8 1.8 1.8
Indonesia 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.3
Afghanistan
American Samoa
Puerto Rico
Kosovo
Timor-Leste
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Turks and Caicos Islands
Greenland
Liechtenstein
New Caledonia
South Sudan
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Somalia
Liberia 5.9 6.0
French Polynesia
Bermuda
Faeroe Islands
Guam
Hong Kong SAR, China
Northern Mariana Islands
Macao SAR, China
Curacao
Aruba
Korea, Dem. Rep.
St. Martin (French part)
Cayman Islands
West Bank and Gaza
Isle of Man
Iraq 2.9 2.2 1.9 1.1
Zimbabwe

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