Country name 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Myanmar 2.1 2.1 1.8 1.8 1.8
Iraq 2.9 2.2 1.9 1.1
Indonesia 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.3
Bangladesh 3.5 3.5 2.6 2.6 2.6
United Arab Emirates 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.5
Malaysia 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.0
Singapore 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.1 2.8
Monaco 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.4
Fiji 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.1
Philippines 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.2
Ghana 3.1 3.4 3.0 3.2 3.1
Tanzania 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.2
Saudi Arabia 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.3 4.1
Guinea 3.5 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.4
Qatar 3.7 3.6 3.2 3.4 2.9
Nigeria 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.5 3.4
Solomon Islands 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.8
Gambia, The 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.6
Tajikistan 3.1 3.1 3.6 3.6 3.9
Ecuador 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.6 4.0
Mauritius 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5
Turkey 3.4 3.9 4.2 3.6 4.8
Algeria 3.7 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.4
Pakistan 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.7
Sri Lanka 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.7 3.6
Trinidad and Tobago 4.7 4.3 4.2 3.7 4.3
Oman 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.5
Thailand 3.5 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.5
Congo, Rep. 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.7 3.1
Central African Republic 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.8 4.1
Romania 3.2 3.2 4.2 3.8 4.2
Belize 4.2 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.7
Ethiopia 3.0 3.0 3.3 3.8 4.0
Papua New Guinea 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.8 4.1
Morocco 3.9 3.8 4.1 3.9 4.0
Libya 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.9 3.6
Vanuatu 2.6 2.3 3.3 3.9 3.5
Botswana 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.0 3.8
Guatemala 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.4
Senegal 3.9 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.5
Comoros 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.0 3.8
Sudan 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.0 3.8
Mongolia 3.2 3.5 3.6 4.0 4.0
Korea, Rep. 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.4
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 4.5 4.4 4.7 4.2 4.2
Gabon 3.4 3.4 3.0 4.2 3.5
Congo, Dem. Rep. 3.3 3.0 3.6 4.3 3.8
Equatorial Guinea 5.4 4.4 3.2 4.3 2.8
Eritrea 4.5 3.7 4.2 4.3 4.7
Bahrain 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.3 4.2
India 4.1 3.9 4.3 4.3 4.1
China 3.5 3.8 4.0 4.4 4.5
Benin 4.7 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.6
Cameroon 3.9 5.2 4.6 4.4 4.4
Brunei Darussalam 2.9 3.7 3.7 4.4 4.1
Kuwait 3.8 3.5 3.7 4.4 3.7
Madagascar 4.1 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.5
Kenya 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.5 4.2
Iran, Islamic Rep. 3.8 3.7 4.1 4.5 4.6
Venezuela, RB 4.2 3.5 3.9 4.5 5.7
Mozambique 5.3 4.3 4.6 4.5 5.3
Peru 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.6 5.0
Mauritania 4.6 3.7 3.9 4.6 5.3
Antigua and Barbuda 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.0
Togo 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.7
Burkina Faso 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.7 5.3
Angola 4.8 3.4 4.6 4.7 4.1
Tonga 4.1 4.2 4.5 4.7 5.1
Kazakhstan 4.6 4.3 4.7 4.8 4.4
Barbados 5.2 5.1 5.1 4.9 5.0
Mexico 5.1 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.1
Vietnam 5.2 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.9
Yemen, Rep. 4.1 4.1 4.1 5.0 4.3
San Marino 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0
Seychelles 5.0 5.1 5.6 5.0 5.1
Turkmenistan 3.1 3.1 5.0 5.0 3.9
Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.9 4.3 5.0 5.1 5.3
St. Kitts and Nevis 5.4 5.4 5.1 5.1 5.3
Jamaica 4.1 4.7 6.0 5.1 4.7
Rwanda 4.3 4.4 4.4 5.1 4.6
Bolivia 4.5 4.6 4.4 5.1 6.2
Syrian Arab Republic 5.5 5.5 5.3 5.1 5.2
St. Lucia 4.7 5.5 5.0 5.1 5.5
Bulgaria 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.2 6.0
Cabo Verde 5.3 4.8 4.7 5.2 4.6
Guyana 5.1 4.9 5.1 5.3 4.7
Tunisia 5.9 5.4 5.1 5.4 5.4
Chad 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.9
Azerbaijan 5.8 6.1 5.5 5.4 5.4
Djibouti 4.0 4.0 4.6 5.5 6.2
Malawi 4.9 4.7 5.2 5.5 6.5
Swaziland 5.0 5.4 5.1 5.5 5.3
Estonia 6.3 6.6 6.2 5.6 5.9
Cyprus 4.7 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.6
Bahamas, The 6.9 6.9 5.6 5.6 5.2
Nicaragua 6.5 6.4 5.3 5.6 5.3
Honduras 5.3 5.0 4.9 5.6 6.2
Slovak Republic 6.1 6.4 5.8 5.7 5.8
Luxembourg 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.8
Burundi 5.5 5.4 5.0 5.7 5.6
Dominica 5.8 5.9 6.0 5.7 5.8
Zambia 4.8 5.3 5.5 5.7 7.0
Armenia 6.4 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.7
Cuba 5.2 5.3 5.5 5.8 6.0
Samoa 5.2 4.7 5.2 5.8 6.3
Dominican Republic 5.5 5.3 5.7 5.8 5.9
Kyrgyz Republic 6.0 5.7 5.2 5.9 5.3
Poland 5.5 5.9 5.6 5.9 5.7
Liberia 5.9 6.0
Cambodia 5.3 7.2 6.3 5.9 5.5
Belarus 6.7 6.2 6.6 6.0 6.2
Haiti 6.6 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.7
Lithuania 5.4 5.6 5.7 6.1 6.2
Latvia 5.8 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.4
Ireland 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.1 6.1
Mali 5.2 7.8 7.0 6.2 6.0
Niger 6.0 5.7 6.1 6.3 6.3
Paraguay 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.8
Uzbekistan 6.9 7.3 7.3 6.4 5.5
Maldives 5.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.6
Malta 5.6 6.0 6.3 6.4 6.4
Lao PDR 4.1 4.6 6.3 6.4 3.7
Czech Republic 6.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3
Uganda 8.5 6.9 6.6 6.5 6.5
Georgia 5.1 7.5 8.0 6.5 6.3
United Kingdom 6.7 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.8
Ukraine 7.7 7.0 6.9 6.6 5.9
Nepal 5.3 5.4 5.5 6.6 5.9
Russian Federation 5.4 5.6 7.1 6.6 5.8
Croatia 6.8 7.1 5.9 6.7 7.3
Brazil 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.7 7.1
Serbia 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.8
Namibia 6.2 6.6 6.8 6.8 7.0
Lesotho 7.5 7.5 6.7 6.8 6.8
Albania 9.6 7.4 7.6 6.9 6.9
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 9.1 8.6 7.8 7.0 7.6
Kiribati 9.4 9.2 9.4 7.0 8.8
Bhutan 3.8 6.2 7.2 7.0 6.7
Guinea-Bissau 6.4 7.0 6.7 7.1 5.8
Panama 7.7 7.2 7.1 7.1 6.9
Costa Rica 6.5 6.7 6.4 7.1 6.8
Chile 6.0 6.5 6.7 7.2 7.3
Hungary 7.3 7.1 6.8 7.2 7.3
Japan 6.8 7.0 6.9 7.2 7.4
Spain 7.4 7.5 7.3 7.3 7.3
Cote d'Ivoire 6.4 6.8 7.1 7.3 6.5
Grenada 6.9 7.0 7.3 7.3 7.8
Finland 7.8 8.0 7.7 7.4 7.4
Sao Tome and Principe 7.6 7.1 8.3 7.4 8.5
Israel 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.4 7.2
Montenegro 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5
Italy 7.1 7.2 7.4 7.5 7.6
New Zealand 7.0 6.9 7.2 7.6 7.5
Australia 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.8
Moldova 9.1 10.3 9.5 7.7 5.9
Portugal 7.5 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.9
Andorra 6.0 6.3 6.3 7.8 5.8
Slovenia 7.5 7.6 7.8 7.8 7.8
Belgium 7.6 7.9 7.8 7.9 8.1
Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.0 10.2 8.0 8.0 8.9
Netherlands 8.3 8.2 7.9 8.1 8.1
Sweden 8.0 8.2 8.0 8.1 8.2
Denmark 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.2 9.0
El Salvador 6.4 7.6 8.1 8.2 8.0
Tuvalu 8.5 11.4 8.5 8.4 9.0
Argentina 8.3 8.0 8.4 8.5 9.4
South Africa 7.4 8.0 8.3 8.6 8.9
Suriname 5.2 7.4 7.8 8.6 6.8
Colombia 6.8 8.2 9.0 8.7 8.7
Canada 8.9 8.6 8.6 8.8 8.7
Iceland 8.2 8.2 8.1 8.9 9.6
Norway 7.9 7.8 8.4 9.3 9.3
Jordan 8.5 8.9 9.0 9.3 9.4
Greece 9.6 9.6 9.4 9.4 9.6
Switzerland 9.3 9.7 9.7 9.8 10.0
Palau 11.4 11.6 11.4 10.0 11.1
Austria 9.6 9.5 9.8 10.0 10.2
Macedonia, FYR 8.4 8.6 9.1 10.0 8.8
Uruguay 15.6 13.0 9.3 10.1 11.2
France 10.4 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.2
Germany 10.1 10.4 10.3 10.3 10.4
Sierra Leone 11.0 10.8 11.2 10.6 11.8
Lebanon 14.3 15.2 13.0 11.5 10.9
United States 13.2 13.1 13.0 13.1 13.1
Marshall Islands 15.8 19.0 19.9 18.6 18.7
Somalia
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Afghanistan
Puerto Rico
Aruba
Northern Mariana Islands
Hong Kong SAR, China
Timor-Leste
Cayman Islands
New Caledonia
West Bank and Gaza
Greenland
St. Martin (French part)
South Sudan
Guam
Faeroe Islands
French Polynesia
Macao SAR, China
Liechtenstein
Curacao
Middle East (developing only)
Bermuda
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Turks and Caicos Islands
American Samoa
Isle of Man
Zimbabwe

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