Country name 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Indonesia 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.3
Myanmar 2.1 2.1 1.8 1.8 1.8
United Arab Emirates 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.5
Vanuatu 2.6 2.3 3.3 3.9 3.5
Nigeria 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.5 3.4
Malaysia 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.9 3.0
Saudi Arabia 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.3 4.1
Singapore 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.1 2.8
Brunei Darussalam 2.9 3.7 3.7 4.4 4.1
Ethiopia 3.0 3.0 3.3 3.8 4.0
Tajikistan 3.1 3.1 3.6 3.6 3.9
Turkmenistan 3.1 3.1 5.0 5.0 3.9
Monaco 3.1 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.4
Ghana 3.1 3.4 3.0 3.2 3.1
Fiji 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.2 3.1
Mongolia 3.2 3.5 3.6 4.0 4.0
Congo, Rep. 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.7 3.1
Romania 3.2 3.2 4.2 3.8 4.2
Solomon Islands 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. 3.3 3.0 3.6 4.3 3.8
Gambia, The 3.3 3.4 3.1 3.5 3.6
Pakistan 3.3 3.4 3.3 3.6 3.7
Libya 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.9 3.6
Turkey 3.4 3.9 4.2 3.6 4.8
Ecuador 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.6 4.0
Sri Lanka 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.7 3.6
Gabon 3.4 3.4 3.0 4.2 3.5
Philippines 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.2 3.2
Papua New Guinea 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.8 4.1
Bangladesh 3.5 3.5 2.6 2.6 2.6
Guinea 3.5 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.4
Thailand 3.5 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.5
China 3.5 3.8 4.0 4.4 4.5
Djibouti 3.6 3.6 4.6 5.5 6.2
Mauritius 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.5
Tanzania 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.2
Oman 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.7 3.5
Guatemala 3.7 3.6 3.8 4.1 4.9
Sudan 3.7 4.0 3.7 4.0 3.8
Algeria 3.7 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.4
Qatar 3.7 3.6 3.2 3.4 2.9
Kuwait 3.8 3.5 3.7 4.4 3.7
Iran, Islamic Rep. 3.8 3.7 4.1 4.5 4.6
Suriname 3.8 5.5 5.8 5.5 5.1
Bhutan 3.8 6.2 7.2 7.0 6.7
Korea, Rep. 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.4
Cameroon 3.9 5.2 4.6 4.4 4.4
Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.9 4.3 5.0 5.1 5.3
Central African Republic 3.9 4.0 3.9 3.8 4.1
Morocco 3.9 3.8 4.1 3.9 4.0
Senegal 3.9 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.5
India 4.1 3.9 4.3 4.3 4.1
Jamaica 4.1 4.7 6.0 5.1 4.7
Madagascar 4.1 4.5 4.7 4.5 4.5
Tonga 4.1 4.2 4.5 4.7 5.1
Yemen, Rep. 4.1 4.1 4.1 5.0 4.3
Lao PDR 4.1 4.6 6.3 6.4 3.7
Bahrain 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.3 4.2
Botswana 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.0 3.8
Venezuela, RB 4.2 3.5 3.9 4.5 5.7
Belize 4.2 3.6 3.9 3.8 3.7
Kenya 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.5 4.2
Rwanda 4.3 4.4 4.4 5.1 4.6
Burkina Faso 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.7 5.3
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 4.5 4.4 4.7 4.2 4.2
Bolivia 4.5 4.6 4.4 5.1 6.2
Eritrea 4.5 3.7 4.2 4.3 4.7
Comoros 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.0 3.8
Peru 4.6 4.6 4.4 4.6 5.0
Togo 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.7
Kazakhstan 4.6 4.3 4.7 4.8 4.4
Mauritania 4.6 3.7 3.9 4.6 5.3
Trinidad and Tobago 4.7 4.3 4.2 3.7 4.3
Benin 4.7 4.6 4.3 4.4 4.6
Cyprus 4.7 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.6
St. Lucia 4.7 5.5 5.0 5.1 5.5
Zambia 4.8 5.3 5.5 5.7 7.0
Angola 4.8 3.4 4.6 4.7 4.1
Malawi 4.9 4.7 5.2 5.5 6.5
Antigua and Barbuda 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.0
Swaziland 5.0 5.4 5.1 5.5 5.3
Seychelles 5.0 5.1 5.6 5.0 5.1
Guyana 5.1 4.9 5.1 5.3 4.7
Georgia 5.1 7.5 8.0 6.5 6.3
Mexico 5.1 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.1
Cuba 5.2 5.3 5.5 5.8 6.0
Samoa 5.2 4.7 5.2 5.8 6.3
Vietnam 5.2 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.9
Barbados 5.2 5.1 5.1 4.9 5.0
Mali 5.2 7.8 7.0 6.2 6.0
Bulgaria 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.2 6.0
San Marino 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0
Cabo Verde 5.3 4.8 4.7 5.2 4.6
Mozambique 5.3 4.3 4.6 4.5 5.3
Cambodia 5.3 7.2 6.3 5.9 5.5
Nepal 5.3 5.4 5.5 6.6 5.9
Honduras 5.3 5.0 4.9 5.6 6.2
Russian Federation 5.4 5.6 7.1 6.6 5.8
Lithuania 5.4 5.6 5.7 6.1 6.2
Equatorial Guinea 5.4 4.4 3.2 4.3 2.8
St. Kitts and Nevis 5.4 5.4 5.1 5.1 5.3
Burundi 5.5 5.4 5.0 5.7 5.6
Poland 5.5 5.9 5.6 5.9 5.7
Syrian Arab Republic 5.5 5.5 5.3 5.1 5.2
Dominican Republic 5.5 5.3 5.7 5.8 5.9
Luxembourg 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.8
Malta 5.6 6.0 6.3 6.4 6.4
Maldives 5.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.6
Latvia 5.8 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.4
Chad 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.9
Azerbaijan 5.8 6.1 5.5 5.4 5.4
Tunisia 5.9 5.4 5.1 5.4 5.4
Dominica 5.9 6.0 6.1 5.9 5.9
Paraguay 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.8
Niger 6.0 5.7 6.1 6.3 6.3
Kyrgyz Republic 6.0 5.7 5.2 5.9 5.3
Chile 6.0 6.5 6.7 7.2 7.3
Andorra 6.0 6.3 6.3 7.8 5.8
Slovak Republic 6.1 6.4 5.8 5.7 5.8
Namibia 6.2 6.6 6.8 6.8 7.0
Estonia 6.3 6.6 6.2 5.6 5.9
El Salvador 6.4 7.6 8.1 8.2 8.0
Cote d'Ivoire 6.4 6.8 7.1 7.3 6.5
Armenia 6.4 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.7
Guinea-Bissau 6.4 7.0 6.7 7.1 5.8
Nicaragua 6.5 6.4 5.3 5.6 5.3
Costa Rica 6.5 6.7 6.4 7.1 6.8
Ireland 6.6 6.5 6.3 6.1 6.1
Haiti 6.6 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.7
Brazil 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.7 7.1
Czech Republic 6.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3
United Kingdom 6.7 6.7 6.5 6.6 6.8
Serbia 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.8
Belarus 6.7 6.2 6.6 6.0 6.2
Colombia 6.8 8.2 9.0 8.7 8.7
Japan 6.8 7.0 6.9 7.2 7.4
Croatia 6.8 7.1 5.9 6.7 7.3
Bahamas, The 6.9 6.9 5.6 5.6 5.2
Argentina 6.9 6.6 6.9 7.0 7.7
Grenada 6.9 7.0 7.3 7.3 7.8
Uzbekistan 6.9 7.3 7.3 6.4 5.5
New Zealand 7.0 6.9 7.2 7.6 7.5
Italy 7.1 7.2 7.4 7.5 7.6
Australia 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.8
Hungary 7.3 7.1 6.8 7.2 7.3
Israel 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.4 7.2
Montenegro 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.5
South Africa 7.4 8.0 8.3 8.6 8.9
Spain 7.4 7.5 7.3 7.3 7.3
Lesotho 7.5 7.5 6.7 6.8 6.8
Slovenia 7.5 7.6 7.8 7.8 7.8
Portugal 7.5 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.9
Belgium 7.6 7.9 7.8 7.9 8.1
Sao Tome and Principe 7.6 7.1 8.3 7.4 8.5
Ukraine 7.7 7.0 6.9 6.6 5.9
Panama 7.7 7.2 7.1 7.1 6.9
Finland 7.8 8.0 7.7 7.4 7.4
Norway 7.9 7.8 8.4 9.3 9.3
Sweden 8.0 8.2 8.0 8.1 8.2
Denmark 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.2 9.0
Iceland 8.2 8.2 8.1 8.9 9.6
Netherlands 8.3 8.2 7.9 8.1 8.1
Macedonia, FYR 8.4 8.6 9.1 10.0 8.8
Jordan 8.5 8.9 9.0 9.3 9.4
Tuvalu 8.5 11.4 8.5 8.4 9.0
Uganda 8.5 6.9 6.6 6.5 6.5
Canada 8.9 8.6 8.6 8.8 8.7
Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.0 10.2 8.0 8.0 8.9
Moldova 9.1 10.3 9.5 7.7 5.9
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 9.1 8.6 7.8 7.0 7.6
Switzerland 9.3 9.7 9.7 9.8 10.0
Kiribati 9.4 9.2 9.4 7.0 8.8
Albania 9.6 7.4 7.6 6.9 6.9
Austria 9.6 9.5 9.8 10.0 10.2
Greece 9.6 9.6 9.4 9.4 9.6
Germany 10.1 10.4 10.3 10.3 10.4
France 10.4 10.4 10.3 10.1 10.2
Sierra Leone 11.0 10.8 11.2 10.6 11.8
Palau 11.4 11.6 11.4 10.0 11.1
United States 13.2 13.1 13.0 13.1 13.1
Lebanon 14.3 15.2 13.0 11.5 10.9
Uruguay 15.6 13.0 9.3 10.1 11.2
Marshall Islands 15.8 19.0 19.9 18.6 18.7
Somalia
Bermuda
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
South Sudan
Puerto Rico
American Samoa
Northern Mariana Islands
Greenland
New Caledonia
Curacao
Isle of Man
West Bank and Gaza
Hong Kong SAR, China
St. Martin (French part)
Timor-Leste
Iraq 2.9 2.2 1.9 1.1
Macao SAR, China
Guam
Liechtenstein
French Polynesia
Liberia 5.9 6.0
Faeroe Islands
Afghanistan
Cayman Islands
Kosovo
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Aruba
Turks and Caicos Islands
Zimbabwe

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