Country name 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Qatar 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.5 1.0
Rwanda 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
Kuwait 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8
Benin 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8
Thailand 1.1 0.9 3.4 3.0 2.4
Cambodia 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5
Lao PDR 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9
Vietnam 1.9 2.9 2.3 2.3 2.3
Korea, Rep. 2.0 2.6 7.0 6.3 4.4
Singapore 2.2 2.0 3.5 3.8 3.7
Uganda 2.2 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8
Burkina Faso 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.3 3.0
Bhutan 2.5 1.7 1.4 1.4 1.7
Bangladesh 2.5 2.9 2.5 3.1 3.3
Malaysia 2.5 2.4 3.2 3.4 3.0
United Arab Emirates 2.6 2.5 3.1 3.1 2.3
Guinea 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.0
Papua New Guinea 2.7 3.0 2.7 2.8 2.9
Hong Kong SAR, China 2.8 2.2 4.6 6.2 4.9
Madagascar 3.0 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.6
Luxembourg 3.3 2.5 2.8 2.4 2.3
Sierra Leone 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3
Japan 3.4 3.4 4.1 4.7 4.8
Guatemala 3.5 3.9 3.2 1.9 1.4
Iceland 3.7 3.9 2.7 2.0 2.3
Switzerland 3.7 4.1 3.6 3.1 2.7
Myanmar 3.8 3.8 4.0 3.6 3.5
Czech Republic 3.9 4.8 6.5 8.7 8.8
Bahrain 3.9 4.2 3.9 3.9 4.5
India 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.4 4.3
Austria 4.1 4.2 4.2 3.7 3.5
Cote d'Ivoire 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1
Liberia 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.2
Solomon Islands 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.7
Brunei Darussalam 4.2 3.6 3.6 4.5 4.1
Macao SAR, China 4.2 3.1 4.5 6.3 6.7
Cyprus 4.3 3.3 4.9 5.7 5.0
Paraguay 4.4 5.3 5.3 6.6 7.6
Nicaragua 4.4 4.0 4.6 5.1 6.2
Honduras 4.4 3.3 4.0 3.9 3.9
Indonesia 4.4 4.7 5.5 6.3 6.1
Nepal 4.5 3.8 3.1 1.8 2.4
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep. 4.5 4.4 4.6 4.3 4.2
China 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.5
Azerbaijan 4.7 6.6 7.2 5.2 11.8
Ecuador 4.7 7.5 5.5 6.3 7.2
Norway 4.8 3.9 3.2 3.2 3.4
Tanzania 5.0 4.6 4.8 4.6 5.1
Niger 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0
Bolivia 5.2 4.3 3.5 4.3 4.8
Mexico 5.2 4.1 3.6 2.5 2.6
Pakistan 5.3 5.8 5.7 6.1 7.2
Ethiopia 5.5 6.3 7.2 8.2 7.5
United States 5.5 5.0 4.6 4.3 4.1
Fiji 5.8 6.7 8.4 8.1 7.7
Saudi Arabia 6.0 6.2 6.4 4.3 4.6
Zimbabwe 6.0 6.9 6.5 6.0 6.3
Mongolia 6.2 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1
Equatorial Guinea 6.2 6.0 6.4 6.4 6.5
Costa Rica 6.2 5.7 5.6 6.0 5.1
Belarus 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.5
Chile 6.3 6.1 6.3 9.8 9.2
New Zealand 6.3 6.8 7.7 7.0 6.2
Netherlands 6.4 5.5 4.4 3.6 2.7
Peru 6.5 5.3 4.9 6.3 6.4
Moldova 6.5 3.3 5.6 11.1 8.5
Turkey 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.7 6.5
Israel 6.7 7.7 8.5 8.9 8.8
Timor-Leste 6.7 6.7 7.2 6.7 6.5
Romania 6.7 5.5 5.6 6.2 7.0
Angola 6.7 6.9 7.0 6.9 6.9
Oman 6.7 7.0 7.4 7.7 8.0
Congo, Rep. 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.6
Comoros 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7
Portugal 6.8 6.3 4.9 4.4 3.9
Brazil 6.8 7.7 8.9 9.6 9.5
Somalia 6.8 6.8 6.9 6.9 6.9
Denmark 6.8 5.4 5.0 5.1 4.5
Slovenia 6.9 6.6 7.4 7.3 6.9
Guinea-Bissau 6.9 6.9 7.2 6.8 6.8
Chad 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.1
Central African Republic 7.1 6.9 6.9 6.9 7.0
Gambia, The 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.2
Togo 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.2
Malta 7.1 7.1 6.3 7.0 6.3
Burundi 7.3 7.2 7.1 7.3 7.3
Malawi 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6
Eritrea 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.7
Philippines 7.4 7.9 9.4 9.4 11.2
Nigeria 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.6
Ukraine 7.6 8.9 11.3 11.6 11.6
Cuba 7.6 7.1 6.2 6.3 5.4
El Salvador 7.7 8.0 7.3 7.0 7.0
Cameroon 8.1 7.8 7.5 7.2 6.4
Congo, Dem. Rep. 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2
United Kingdom 8.3 7.2 6.2 6.0 5.6
Afghanistan 8.4 8.5 8.5 8.4 8.3
Lebanon 8.4 6.2 8.3 8.6 8.9
Australia 8.5 8.5 7.7 6.9 6.3
Mali 8.6 8.3 8.5 8.2 8.3
Kyrgyz Republic 8.7 8.3 9.7 8.2 7.5
Mauritius 8.8 8.3 8.6 9.0 7.8
Germany 8.9 9.8 9.2 8.4 7.7
Egypt, Arab Rep. 9.0 8.4 8.2 8.1 9.0
Syrian Arab Republic 9.5 9.5 7.2 7.6 9.5
Belgium 9.5 9.0 9.3 8.6 6.6
Cabo Verde 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.5 9.6
Canada 9.6 9.1 8.3 7.6 6.8
Ghana 9.6 7.2 8.2 10.1 10.4
Greece 9.7 9.6 10.8 11.7 11.1
Russian Federation 9.7 11.8 13.3 13.0 10.6
Estonia 9.9 10.4 9.5 11.6 13.1
Kenya 9.9 9.9 9.8 9.8 9.8
Hungary 9.9 8.7 7.8 7.0 6.4
Croatia 10.0 9.9 11.0 13.5 16.1
Sweden 10.1 10.2 8.5 7.3 5.9
Maldives 10.1 10.4 10.5 10.3 10.8
Turkmenistan 10.5 10.3 10.9 11.2 11.2
Senegal 10.5 10.4 9.1 8.9 10.4
Uzbekistan 10.8 10.9 10.9 10.9 10.9
Haiti 10.8 10.9 10.9 7.2 7.4
Suriname 10.9 10.5 10.6 13.8 14.8
Uruguay 10.9 9.4 8.8 9.8 10.7
Tajikistan 11.2 11.3 11.7 11.9 11.9
Sri Lanka 11.3 10.6 9.1 8.9 7.7
Slovak Republic 11.3 11.9 12.6 16.4 18.8
Bahamas, The 11.5 9.8 7.6 7.4 7.2
Guyana 11.7 11.6 11.5 11.5 11.5
Ireland 11.7 10.2 7.7 5.8 4.3
Italy 11.9 12.0 12.1 11.7 10.8
Georgia 12.3 12.2 12.4 13.8 10.8
Poland 12.4 11.2 10.7 12.5 16.1
Yemen, Rep. 12.4 13.6 15.0 13.6 16.1
France 12.4 12.6 12.1 12.0 10.2
Venezuela, RB 12.4 10.6 11.0 14.5 13.2
Latvia 12.6 14.7 14.5 13.8 14.2
Kazakhstan 13.0 13.0 13.1 13.5 12.8
Iran, Islamic Rep. 13.1 11.5 12.1 11.3 12.0
Serbia 13.2 13.8 13.7 13.7 12.6
Bulgaria 13.5 13.7 12.2 14.1 16.2
Colombia 13.7 11.6 13.1 14.8 16.6
Jordan 13.7 11.8 12.5 11.5 13.7
Belize 13.8 12.7 14.3 12.8 10.9
Puerto Rico 13.9 14.1 13.8 12.1 10.3
Finland 14.4 12.6 11.4 10.1 9.7
Panama 14.5 13.4 14.0 11.8 13.5
Barbados 14.7 14.6 12.3 10.4 9.3
Sudan 14.9 15.3 15.0 15.0 15.0
Tunisia 15.2 15.9 17.3 16.0 15.7
Morocco 15.3 15.9 16.6 13.9 13.6
Zambia 15.3 14.5 12.0 12.2 12.9
Lithuania 15.6 14.1 13.7 13.4 15.9
Albania 15.6 14.5 16.0 16.0 13.5
Jamaica 16.0 16.5 15.5 15.7 15.5
Trinidad and Tobago 16.3 15.0 14.2 13.1 12.1
Dominican Republic 16.7 15.6 14.4 13.8 14.2
Argentina 17.2 14.9 12.8 14.1 15.0
Armenia 19.1 17.6 18.3 18.3 18.9
Iraq 19.3 17.6 19.2 18.1 18.2
Libya 19.3 19.4 19.6 19.7 19.7
Namibia 19.5 19.5 19.6 19.8 20.3
Gabon 19.7 20.5 20.5 20.6 20.6
Montenegro 19.9 21.0 20.4 21.2 19.7
South Africa 21.0 22.9 25.0 25.4 26.7
Botswana 21.5 21.0 20.8 21.9 22.1
Swaziland 22.0 22.5 22.6 22.6 22.7
Spain 22.5 21.1 19.0 15.9 14.2
Mozambique 23.3 23.4 23.2 23.2 23.3
West Bank and Gaza 23.8 20.3 14.4 11.8 14.1
Bosnia and Herzegovina 25.7 28.0 26.3 25.8 25.2
Lesotho 28.6 39.3 33.4 27.3 26.6
Algeria 28.7 25.4 25.4 25.4 29.8
Mauritania 32.2 32.3 32.3 32.3 32.4
Macedonia, FYR 34.0 36.0 34.5 32.4 32.2
Palau
Tuvalu
Seychelles
Northern Mariana Islands
Djibouti
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
St. Martin (French part)
Tonga
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
San Marino
Dominica
Cayman Islands
Guam
South Sudan
New Caledonia
Liechtenstein
Grenada
Sao Tome and Principe
Curacao
Aruba
Marshall Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Andorra
Samoa
Isle of Man
Antigua and Barbuda
Vanuatu
American Samoa
Greenland
Bermuda
Monaco
Kiribati
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
French Polynesia
Faroe Islands
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Lucia

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