Country name 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985
Germany 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4
Denmark 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5
Luxembourg 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4
Switzerland 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5
Netherlands 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Italy 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4
Sweden 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7
Finland 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6
Belgium 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5
Austria 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5
Norway 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7
Canada 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7
Singapore 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6
Japan 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Macao SAR, China 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0
United States 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
United Kingdom 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Cuba 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
France 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
Malta 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0
Hungary 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9
Latvia 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1
Russian Federation 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1
Ukraine 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.5
Australia 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.9
Barbados 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.8
Lithuania 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1
Croatia 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.8
Czech Republic 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Bulgaria 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
New Zealand 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9
Slovenia 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7
Belarus 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Spain 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6
Estonia 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.1
Greece 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7
Antigua and Barbuda 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Serbia 2.1
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0
Portugal 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.7
Montenegro 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
Poland 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.3
Slovak Republic 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
Georgia 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
Iceland 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.9
Greenland 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.2
Romania 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.3 2.3
Armenia 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5
Aruba 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3
Cyprus 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5
Macedonia, FYR 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4
Faroe Islands 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.3
Moldova 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6
Mauritius 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.0
China 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7
Puerto Rico 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3
Korea, Rep. 2.6 2.4 2.1 1.7 1.7
Uruguay 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep. 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6
Chile 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.6
Kazakhstan 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1
Bahamas, The 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9
Ireland 3.1 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.5
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
Guam 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1
Azerbaijan 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9
Israel 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1
Thailand 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.6
Argentina 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1
Trinidad and Tobago 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1
Sri Lanka 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.9
Albania 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3
Costa Rica 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4
New Caledonia 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.0
Jamaica 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3
Malaysia 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7
Panama 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4
Suriname 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.5
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.3
Colombia 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4
Fiji 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.6
Lebanon 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5
French Polynesia 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.7
Brazil 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.4
Kyrgyz Republic 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1
Brunei Darussalam 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.8
Venezuela, RB 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8
Guyana 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.9
Turkey 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.7
Grenada 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2
Indonesia 4.3 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.7
Dominican Republic 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9
St. Lucia 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.0 3.9
Ecuador 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2
Mexico 4.6 4.5 4.3 4.1 4.0
South Africa 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3
India 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.5
Bahrain 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.4
Vietnam 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.2
Myanmar 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.3
Peru 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.4
Turkmenistan 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.7
El Salvador 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.4
Timor-Leste 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.3
Uzbekistan 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5
Kiribati 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.9
Philippines 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7
Paraguay 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0
Tunisia 5.2 5.0 4.8 4.6 4.5
Kuwait 5.3 5.0 4.7 4.4 4.1
United Arab Emirates 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.1
Vanuatu 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.2
Tonga 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.1
Lesotho 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.3
Egypt, Arab Rep. 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.4
Morocco 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.1 4.9
Tajikistan 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.5
Papua New Guinea 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2
Bolivia 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3
Qatar 5.7 5.5 5.3 5.1 4.9
Belize 5.7 5.5 5.3 5.2 5.0
Nepal 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.5
Gabon 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7
Equatorial Guinea 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8
Central African Republic 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.9
Nicaragua 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.6 5.4
Mongolia 6.0 5.9 5.7 5.5 5.3
Cambodia 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.3
Samoa 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.7 5.6
Haiti 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.0
Botswana 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.7 5.6
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.6
Congo, Rep. 6.1 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.8
Guatemala 6.2 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.8
Honduras 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.7
Bangladesh 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.7 5.5
Cabo Verde 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.0 5.9
Lao PDR 6.3 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.4
Gambia, The 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.2
Sao Tome and Principe 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1
Madagascar 6.4 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1
Namibia 6.4 6.3 6.1 6.0 5.9
Mauritania 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.2
Djibouti 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.2
Sierra Leone 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.6
Ghana 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1
Mozambique 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.4
Iraq 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.2
Bhutan 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.3
Pakistan 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.4
Iran, Islamic Rep. 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.2
Guinea 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6
Guinea-Bissau 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.7
Algeria 6.6 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.8
Tanzania 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.5
Swaziland 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.4
Solomon Islands 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.3
Congo, Dem. Rep. 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.9
Cameroon 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7
Eritrea 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.6
Sudan 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.5
Nigeria 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.7
South Sudan 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8
Zimbabwe 7.0 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.2
Liberia 7.0 7.0 6.9 6.9 6.9
Syrian Arab Republic 7.0 6.8 6.7 6.5 6.4
Chad 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.1
Libya 7.0 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.2
Benin 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0
Somalia 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
Comoros 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.0 6.9
Uganda 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
Zambia 7.1 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.8
Saudi Arabia 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.6
Mali 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2
Maldives 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.1
Burkina Faso 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.1
Togo 7.2 7.1 7.0 7.0 6.9
Jordan 7.2 7.1 6.9 6.8 6.6
Angola 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3
Senegal 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.1
Ethiopia 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4
Kenya 7.4 7.3 7.2 7.0 6.9
Burundi 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5
Afghanistan 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5
Cote d'Ivoire 7.5 7.4 7.3 7.2 7.1
Niger 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6
Malawi 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.5
Oman 8.3 8.4 8.3 8.3 8.2
Rwanda 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.3
Yemen, Rep. 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.9 8.9
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
St. Kitts and Nevis 3.3
Dominica 3.5
San Marino
Andorra
Turks and Caicos Islands
Marshall Islands
Tuvalu
Northern Mariana Islands
Curacao
American Samoa
Palau
Seychelles 3.5
Cayman Islands
Bermuda
Liechtenstein
West Bank and Gaza
Isle of Man
Monaco
St. Martin (French part) 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.2

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