Country name 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988
Italy 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4
Luxembourg 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5
Germany 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5
Singapore 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.6 2.0
Austria 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5
Denmark 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6
Switzerland 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6
Belgium 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6
Netherlands 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6
Spain 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5
Korea, Rep. 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.6
Finland 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7
Greece 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5
Portugal 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6
Slovenia 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6
Canada 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7
Norway 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8
Japan 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7
Croatia 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.8
United Kingdom 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Sweden 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.0
Barbados 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Cuba 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
United States 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9
Hungary 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8
France 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8
Australia 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8
Czech Republic 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9
Iceland 2.1 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.3
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8
Malta 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.1
New Zealand 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1
Mauritius 2.2 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1
Macao SAR, China 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9
Bulgaria 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Montenegro 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9
St. Martin (French part) 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1
Ukraine 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0
Antigua and Barbuda 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Belarus 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0
Lithuania 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0
Latvia 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1
Central Europe and the Baltics 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1
Russian Federation 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.1
Estonia 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3
Slovak Republic 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1
Poland 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.1
Georgia 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2
Puerto Rico 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
Aruba 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
Macedonia, FYR 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3
Romania 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.3
Ireland 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2
Thailand 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.3
Cyprus 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4
Korea, Dem. Rep. 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.4
Armenia 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6
Uruguay 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Guyana 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5
Moldova 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6
Chile 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6
Bahamas, The 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.7
Sri Lanka 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6
China 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7
Azerbaijan 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8
Trinidad and Tobago 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.7
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
New Caledonia 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1
Israel 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9
Argentina 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0
Guam 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1
Kazakhstan 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.1
Albania 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1
Suriname 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.1 2.9
Jamaica 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1
Brazil 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.0
Panama 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2
Colombia 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2
Lebanon 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2
Costa Rica 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.3
Turkey 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.3
Fiji 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5
Indonesia 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.3
Malaysia 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6
French Polynesia 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.6
Kuwait 4.5 4.1 3.7 3.3 2.9
Venezuela, RB 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6
Brunei Darussalam 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7
Mexico 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6
St. Lucia 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6
Dominican Republic 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6
Vietnam 4.4 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.8
Kyrgyz Republic 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0
Myanmar 4.5 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.7
Ecuador 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.0
South Africa 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 3.9
Grenada 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1
India 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0
Bahrain 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.0
Peru 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.0
Tunisia 4.6 4.5 4.3 4.1 3.9
El Salvador 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.1
Kosovo 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3
Uzbekistan 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.3
Turkmenistan 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.5
Philippines 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.5
Qatar 5.1 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.3
Morocco 5.1 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.4
Kiribati 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.7
Belize 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7
Paraguay 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7
Egypt, Arab Rep. 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7
United Arab Emirates 5.1 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.7
Tonga 5.3 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8
Bolivia 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0
Papua New Guinea 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.9
Mongolia 5.5 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.6
Vanuatu 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0
Lesotho 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.1
Nicaragua 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.1 5.0
Timor-Leste 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3
Bangladesh 5.7 5.5 5.3 5.1 4.9
Botswana 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.0
Nepal 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.3
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.2
Tajikistan 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.3
Samoa 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3
Honduras 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.3
Gabon 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.6 5.6
Congo, Rep. 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5
Algeria 6.2 6.0 5.7 5.5 5.3
Namibia 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.6 5.5
Cabo Verde 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6
Guatemala 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.7
Sao Tome and Principe 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.7 5.6
Equatorial Guinea 5.8 5.8 5.9 5.9 5.9
Haiti 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7
Central African Republic 6.0 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9
Zimbabwe 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.6
Iran, Islamic Rep. 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.5
Ghana 6.2 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.8
Mauritania 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.1
Cambodia 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1 5.9
Fragile and conflict affected situations 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.0
Iraq 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.0
Syrian Arab Republic 6.5 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.7
Madagascar 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.3
Gambia, The 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1
Djibouti 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2
Solomon Islands 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.1
Bhutan 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.0
Libya 6.9 6.6 6.3 5.9 5.6
Swaziland 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1
Lao PDR 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.3
Comoros 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.1 5.9
Pakistan 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.2
Mozambique 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3
Jordan 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.2 5.9
Sudan 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.3
Tanzania 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.3
Saudi Arabia 6.8 6.7 6.5 6.3 6.2
Eritrea 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5
Guinea 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6
Nigeria 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.6
Cameroon 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.6
Zambia 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.6
Guinea-Bissau 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7
Kenya 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.6 6.4
Togo 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.6
South Sudan 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8
Liberia 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.7
Sierra Leone 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.7
Cote d'Ivoire 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.6
Congo, Dem. Rep. 6.8 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.0
Benin 7.0 7.0 6.9 6.9 6.9
Senegal 7.2 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.8
Maldives 7.2 7.2 7.1 6.9 6.7
Mali 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
Uganda 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
Burkina Faso 7.2 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
Chad 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.2
Somalia 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3
Angola 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2
Ethiopia 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.3
Malawi 7.6 7.5 7.5 7.4 7.3
Burundi 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.6
Afghanistan 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7
Niger 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8
Oman 8.3 8.2 8.1 7.9 7.7
Rwanda 8.4 8.3 8.2 8.0 7.8
Yemen, Rep. 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9
Tuvalu
Northern Mariana Islands
Curacao
Palau
Dominica 3.0
American Samoa
Seychelles 3.0
Serbia
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
San Marino
Monaco
Bermuda
Marshall Islands 5.9
Liechtenstein
Isle of Man
Faeroe Islands
Andorra
Cayman Islands
West Bank and Gaza
St. Kitts and Nevis 2.8
Turks and Caicos Islands
Greenland

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