Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3
Italy 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3
Luxembourg 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6
Germany 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.5
Austria 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5
Spain 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4
Denmark 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7
Greece 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4
Switzerland 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6
Korea, Rep. 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6
Belgium 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6
Netherlands 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Finland 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8
Portugal 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Singapore 1.4 1.6 2.0 1.8 1.9
Croatia 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.6
Slovenia 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5
Canada 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8
Japan 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5
Norway 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9
Barbados 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7
United Kingdom 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Hungary 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9
Cuba 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
France 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Sweden 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.1
Australia 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9
United States 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1
Czech Republic 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8
Bulgaria 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8
Macao SAR, China 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7
Malta 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0
Belarus 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9
New Zealand 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2
Mauritius 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3
Ukraine 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8
Iceland 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.3
Antigua and Barbuda 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Greenland 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.4
Lithuania 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0
Montenegro 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
St. Martin (French part) 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1
Slovak Republic 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Poland 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1
Latvia 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0
Russian Federation 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9
Georgia 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2
Estonia 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1
Puerto Rico 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2
Macedonia, FYR 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2
Aruba 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2
Ireland 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1
Thailand 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1
Romania 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.2 1.8
Faroe Islands 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.8
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep. 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3
Cyprus 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.4
Uruguay 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Armenia 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.5
Chile 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5
Moldova 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.4
China 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.4
Sri Lanka 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.5
Bahamas, The 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6
St. Kitts and Nevis 2.8
Trinidad and Tobago 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5
Azerbaijan 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
Dominica 3.0
Seychelles 3.0
Israel 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8
Argentina 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0
Guam 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0
Jamaica 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.9
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0
Albania 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.0
Brazil 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.8
Kazakhstan 3.1 3.2 3.1 2.8 2.7
Colombia 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0
New Caledonia 3.2 3.3 3.1 3.0 3.2
Panama 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1
Lebanon 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0
Costa Rica 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2
Kuwait 3.7 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.6
Turkey 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1
Suriname 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3
Indonesia 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.1
Fiji 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4
Malaysia 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5
French Polynesia 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4
Venezuela, RB 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4
St. Lucia 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4
Dominican Republic 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.5
Brunei Darussalam 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.5
Mexico 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5
Guyana 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6
Myanmar 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5
Vietnam 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6
Ecuador 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8
Kyrgyz Republic 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.6
South Africa 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.7
Tunisia 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.4
Bahrain 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.7
Peru 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8
Grenada 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.8
El Salvador 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9
India 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0
Uzbekistan 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.1
Qatar 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.0
Philippines 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3
Morocco 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.1
Turkmenistan 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3
Belize 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5
Paraguay 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5
Kiribati 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.7
United Arab Emirates 5.0 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.4
Tonga 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6
Mongolia 5.1 4.9 4.6 4.4 4.1
Papua New Guinea 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.8
Vanuatu 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0 4.9
Bangladesh 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.7 4.5
Nicaragua 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.8 4.6
Bolivia 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0 4.9
Lesotho 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.9
Egypt, Arab Rep. 5.3 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.7
Botswana 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.7
Timor-Leste 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.0
Nepal 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.2
Samoa 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1
Tajikistan 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.2
Algeria 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.7
Honduras 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1
Congo, Rep. 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3
Guatemala 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3
Gabon 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.4
Namibia 5.8 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.2
Cabo Verde 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.3
Iran, Islamic Rep. 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.2 4.8
Zimbabwe 6.0 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.2
Libya 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.3 5.0
Haiti 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.4
Equatorial Guinea 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9
Marshall Islands 5.9
Central African Republic 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.8 5.8
Ghana 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6
Syrian Arab Republic 6.2 6.0 5.7 5.5 5.3
Sao Tome and Principe 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.9 5.8
Cambodia 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.6
Mauritania 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.0 6.0
Iraq 6.2 6.1 6.0 6.0 5.9
Bhutan 6.2 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.6
Solomon Islands 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.0 5.9
Jordan 6.4 6.2 5.9 5.7 5.5
Gambia, The 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.1
Swaziland 6.3 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.7
Djibouti 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1
Madagascar 6.2 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.3
Pakistan 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.0
Lao PDR 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.2
Sudan 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.2
Saudi Arabia 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.0 5.9
Mozambique 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.2
Tanzania 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.2
Eritrea 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.4
Kenya 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.2 6.0
Nigeria 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5
Cameroon 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.4
Guinea 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6
Sierra Leone 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.7
Togo 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.4 6.3
Zambia 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5
Guinea-Bissau 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.6
Comoros 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.4
Liberia 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.5
Maldives 7.0 6.8 6.5 6.3 6.0
South Sudan 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8
Cote d'Ivoire 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.6
Benin 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.7
Senegal 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.6
Congo, Dem. Rep. 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.1
Burkina Faso 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.0
Uganda 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
Mali 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2
Chad 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3
Somalia 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4
Angola 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.2
Malawi 7.4 7.3 7.2 7.1 7.0
Ethiopia 7.4 7.4 7.3 7.3 7.2
Afghanistan 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5
Burundi 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.5
Niger 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7
Oman 8.1 7.9 7.7 7.5 7.2
Rwanda 8.2 8.0 7.8 7.6 7.3
Yemen, Rep. 8.9 8.8 8.8 8.7 8.6
Monaco
Palau 2.8
Turks and Caicos Islands
Serbia
Tuvalu
Bermuda
American Samoa
Isle of Man
Liechtenstein
Curacao
San Marino
Cayman Islands
West Bank and Gaza 6.7
Andorra
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Northern Mariana Islands

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