Country name 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
Germany 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3
Italy 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3
Spain 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3
Slovenia 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3
Greece 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3
Croatia 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5
Macao SAR, China 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4
Japan 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Austria 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Romania 2.2 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.4
Portugal 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5
Bulgaria 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5
Russian Federation 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.4
Switzerland 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5
Netherlands 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6
Luxembourg 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7
Belgium 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6
Cuba 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7
Czech Republic 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.7
Canada 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7
Estonia 2.2 2.1 1.8 1.7 1.5
Ukraine 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.6
Barbados 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7
Latvia 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.5
France 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7
Belarus 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.6
Denmark 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8
Singapore 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8
Korea, Rep. 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.7
Hungary 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7
United Kingdom 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Montenegro 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8
Finland 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.8
Norway 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
Australia 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.9
Slovak Republic 2.1 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.9
St. Martin (French part) 2.2 2.1 2.1 1.9 1.8
Poland 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.9
Lithuania 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.7
Ireland 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.9
Thailand 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0
United States 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0
Georgia 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0
Sweden 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0
Antigua and Barbuda 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Malta 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.0
New Zealand 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1
Kuwait 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.2
Macedonia, FYR 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.1
China 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.0
Puerto Rico 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
Aruba 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.1
Moldova 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1
Iceland 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2
Trinidad and Tobago 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.1
Korea, Dem. Rep. 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2
Cyprus 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3
Mauritius 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.2
Sri Lanka 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.4
Armenia 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.3
Guyana 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Uruguay 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Kazakhstan 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.3
Dominica 2.5
Greenland 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6
Chile 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5
St. Kitts and Nevis 2.6
Bahamas, The 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6
Suriname 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6
Brazil 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6
Seychelles 2.7
Israel 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.8
Azerbaijan 2.8 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.7
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.7
Lebanon 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8
New Caledonia 3.1 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.8
Jamaica 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8
Albania 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8
Turkey 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.8
Argentina 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9
Guam 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9
Indonesia 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.8
Kosovo 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.0 2.8
Panama 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9
Costa Rica 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.9
Colombia 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0
Myanmar 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.0
French Polynesia 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1
Tunisia 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.0
St. Lucia 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1
Mexico 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1
Vietnam 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.1
Venezuela, RB 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.2
Brunei Darussalam 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2
Dominican Republic 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3
Fiji 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3
South Africa 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.3
Mongolia 4.4 4.1 3.7 3.5 3.2
Malaysia 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4
Bahrain 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.3
Grenada 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.4
Ecuador 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5
Peru 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5
Kyrgyz Republic 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.3
India 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6
Morocco 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.6
El Salvador 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7
Qatar 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7
United Arab Emirates 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.8
Uzbekistan 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.0 3.8
Egypt, Arab Rep. 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.9
Turkmenistan 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 3.9
Iran, Islamic Rep. 5.2 4.8 4.5 4.1 3.8
Philippines 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.1
Bangladesh 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.0
Algeria 5.0 4.8 4.5 4.2 4.0
Paraguay 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.3
Belize 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.3
Botswana 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.3
Libya 5.3 5.0 4.7 4.4 4.2
Nicaragua 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.4
Kiribati 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.5
Tonga 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.5
Papua New Guinea 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.7
Lesotho 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.7
Bolivia 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.7
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.8
Zimbabwe 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.8 4.7
Vanuatu 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.8
Syrian Arab Republic 5.5 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.8
Tajikistan 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.8
Honduras 5.2 5.1 5.0 5.0 4.8
Samoa 5.2 5.1 5.0 5.0 4.9
Namibia 5.4 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.8
Nepal 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.9
Cabo Verde 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.0 4.9
Jordan 5.7 5.5 5.3 5.2 5.0
Sao Tome and Principe 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1
Haiti 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1
Bhutan 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.0
Congo, Rep. 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.2
Cambodia 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.0
Gabon 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.2
Comoros 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.4 5.3
Swaziland 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.2
Ghana 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3
Maldives 6.4 6.1 5.8 5.5 5.1
Guatemala 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.4
Saudi Arabia 6.0 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.4
Solomon Islands 6.0 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.5
Timor-Leste 5.3 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.9
Kenya 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.7 5.5
Central African Republic 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.7
Iraq 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6
Pakistan 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.6
Mauritania 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.9 5.8
Djibouti 6.1 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.7
Equatorial Guinea 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9
Lao PDR 6.2 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.8
Sudan 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.0 6.0
Tanzania 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.0
Togo 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.0
Gambia, The 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1
Cote d'Ivoire 6.5 6.4 6.2 6.1 6.0
Mozambique 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1
Madagascar 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1
Cameroon 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.2
Liberia 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.3
Zambia 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.3
Sierra Leone 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.3
Nigeria 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.3
Senegal 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.3
Eritrea 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.4
Oman 7.5 7.2 6.8 6.5 6.1
Guinea 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.4
West Bank and Gaza 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5
Guinea-Bissau 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.5
Benin 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.5
South Sudan 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.6
Malawi 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.7 6.6
Rwanda 7.5 7.3 7.0 6.8 6.6
Burkina Faso 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 6.9
Mali 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.0 7.0
Uganda 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
Angola 7.2 7.2 7.1 7.1 7.1
Ethiopia 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.1 7.1
Congo, Dem. Rep. 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3
Chad 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.4
Burundi 7.6 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.4
Somalia 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.6
Afghanistan 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.8
Niger 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8
Yemen, Rep. 8.8 8.7 8.5 8.3 8.1
American Samoa
Liechtenstein
Monaco
Curacao
Northern Mariana Islands
Andorra
Faeroe Islands
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Palau 2.8
San Marino
Bermuda
Isle of Man
Turks and Caicos Islands
Serbia 1.8
Tuvalu
Cayman Islands
Marshall Islands

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