Country name 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
Germany 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4
Luxembourg 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5
Italy 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3
Denmark 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6
Austria 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3
Belgium 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6
Netherlands 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Switzerland 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6
Singapore 1.6 1.4 1.6 2.0 1.8
Finland 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7
Spain 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4
Korea, Rep. 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.6
Canada 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8
Greece 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4
Norway 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9
Slovenia 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5
Portugal 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6
Sweden 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.0
Japan 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6
United Kingdom 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Croatia 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.6
Barbados 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Cuba 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
United States 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0
Hungary 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
France 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8
Australia 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8
New Zealand 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1
Iceland 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.2
Malta 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1
Czech Republic 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8
Bulgaria 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9
Mauritius 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2
Macao SAR, China 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8
Russian Federation 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.0
Ukraine 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.9
Montenegro 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9
Lithuania 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0
Latvia 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1
Belarus 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0
Antigua and Barbuda 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Estonia 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2
St. Martin (French part) 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2
Slovak Republic 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1
Georgia 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2
Romania 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.2
Poland 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1
Aruba 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
Puerto Rico 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2
Macedonia, FYR 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3
Cyprus 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4
Ireland 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1
Armenia 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6
Uruguay 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Thailand 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.2
Korea, Dem. Rep. 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3
Guyana 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Moldova 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5
Chile 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6
China 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.6
Bahamas, The 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7
Sri Lanka 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5
Azerbaijan 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
New Caledonia 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.1 3.0
Israel 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9
Trinidad and Tobago 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6
Kazakhstan 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.1 2.8
Argentina 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0
Guam 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1
Albania 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0
Jamaica 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0
Suriname 3.3 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.8
Panama 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.1
Colombia 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2
Brazil 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.9
Costa Rica 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3
Lebanon 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1
Fiji 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4
Malaysia 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5
Turkey 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.2
French Polynesia 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5
Indonesia 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.2
Brunei Darussalam 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6
Venezuela, RB 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.5
Dominican Republic 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5
St. Lucia 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5
Mexico 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5
Kuwait 4.1 3.7 3.3 2.9 2.6
Kyrgyz Republic 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.9
Vietnam 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.7
Ecuador 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.9
Grenada 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.0
Myanmar 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.6
India 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.0
South Africa 4.3 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.8
Peru 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.0 3.9
Bahrain 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9
Tunisia 4.5 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.7
El Salvador 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.0
Uzbekistan 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.2
Turkmenistan 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.4
Philippines 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.4
Kiribati 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.7
Qatar 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.2
Morocco 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.2
Belize 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6
Paraguay 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6
Egypt, Arab Rep. 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.5
United Arab Emirates 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.7 4.6
Bolivia 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0
Tonga 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7
Vanuatu 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0
Papua New Guinea 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.9
Lesotho 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.0
Timor-Leste 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3
Mongolia 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.6 4.4
Nicaragua 5.4 5.3 5.1 5.0 4.9
Tajikistan 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.3
Nepal 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.2
Bangladesh 5.5 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.7
Botswana 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.9
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1
Samoa 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2
Honduras 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.2
Gabon 5.7 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.5
Congo, Rep. 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4
Equatorial Guinea 5.8 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9
Cabo Verde 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.4
Namibia 5.9 5.8 5.6 5.5 5.4
Guatemala 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.6
Central African Republic 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.8
Sao Tome and Principe 6.0 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5
Algeria 6.0 5.7 5.5 5.3 5.0
Haiti 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.5
Ghana 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7
Madagascar 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.3 6.3
Mauritania 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.0
Cambodia 6.2 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.8
Djibouti 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1
Gambia, The 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1
Iraq 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.0 6.0
Iran, Islamic Rep. 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.2
Zimbabwe 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.6 5.4
Solomon Islands 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.0
Bhutan 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.0 5.8
Syrian Arab Republic 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.7 5.5
Lao PDR 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.2
Swaziland 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 5.9
Mozambique 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.3
Pakistan 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1
Tanzania 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3
Sudan 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.2
Eritrea 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.5
Comoros 6.6 6.4 6.1 5.9 5.7
Jordan 6.6 6.4 6.2 5.9 5.7
Libya 6.6 6.3 5.9 5.6 5.3
Guinea 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6
Saudi Arabia 6.7 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.0
Cameroon 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5
Nigeria 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5
Guinea-Bissau 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7
Zambia 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.5
South Sudan 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.1
Togo 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.5
Liberia 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.6
Sierra Leone 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.6
Kenya 6.9 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.2
Benin 7.0 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.8
Cote d'Ivoire 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.6 6.5
Senegal 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.7
Mali 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
Uganda 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
Chad 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.3
Burkina Faso 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.0
Somalia 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3
Maldives 7.2 7.1 6.9 6.7 6.4
Angola 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2
Ethiopia 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.3 7.3
Burundi 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.6
Malawi 7.5 7.5 7.4 7.3 7.1
Afghanistan 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7
Niger 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8
Oman 8.2 8.1 7.9 7.7 7.5
Rwanda 8.3 8.2 8.0 7.8 7.5
Yemen, Rep. 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.8
Cayman Islands
Faeroe Islands
Liechtenstein
Seychelles 3.0
Serbia
American Samoa
St. Kitts and Nevis 2.8
Marshall Islands 5.9
Middle East (developing only)
Northern Mariana Islands
Bermuda
Andorra
Isle of Man
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Curacao
Greenland
Palau
San Marino
Turks and Caicos Islands
West Bank and Gaza
Tuvalu
Monaco
Dominica 3.0

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