Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Italy 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3
Luxembourg 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6
Germany 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.5
Singapore 1.4 1.6 2.0 1.8 1.9
Austria 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5
Denmark 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7
Switzerland 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6
Belgium 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6
Netherlands 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Spain 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4
Korea, Rep. 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6
Finland 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8
Greece 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4
Portugal 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Slovenia 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5
Canada 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8
Norway 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9
Japan 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5
Croatia 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.6
United Kingdom 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Sweden 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.1
Barbados 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7
Cuba 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
United States 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1
Hungary 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9
France 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Australia 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9
Czech Republic 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
Iceland 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.3
Malta 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0
New Zealand 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8
Mauritius 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3
Macao SAR, China 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7
Bulgaria 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8
Greenland 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.4
St. Martin (French part) 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1
Ukraine 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8
Antigua and Barbuda 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Belarus 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9
Latvia 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0
Lithuania 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0
Montenegro 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Russian Federation 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9
Estonia 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1
Slovak Republic 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Poland 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1
Georgia 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2
Puerto Rico 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2
Aruba 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2
Macedonia, FYR 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2
Romania 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.2 1.8
Faroe Islands 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.8
Ireland 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1
Thailand 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1
Cyprus 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.4
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep. 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3
Armenia 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.5
Uruguay 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Chile 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5
Moldova 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.4
China 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.4
Bahamas, The 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6
Sri Lanka 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.5
Azerbaijan 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7
Trinidad and Tobago 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
Israel 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8
Argentina 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0
Guam 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0
Kazakhstan 3.1 3.2 3.1 2.8 2.7
New Caledonia 3.2 3.3 3.1 3.0 3.2
Albania 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.0
Jamaica 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.9
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0
Brazil 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.8
Colombia 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0
Panama 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1
Costa Rica 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2
Lebanon 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0
Suriname 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3
Turkey 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1
Fiji 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4
Indonesia 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.1
Malaysia 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5
Kuwait 3.7 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.6
French Polynesia 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4
Venezuela, RB 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4
Brunei Darussalam 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.5
St. Lucia 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4
Dominican Republic 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.5
Guyana 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6
Mexico 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5
Vietnam 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6
Kyrgyz Republic 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.6
Myanmar 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5
Ecuador 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8
South Africa 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.7
Grenada 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.8
Bahrain 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.7
Peru 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8
Tunisia 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.4
El Salvador 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9
India 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0
Uzbekistan 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.1
Turkmenistan 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3
Philippines 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3
Qatar 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.0
Morocco 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.1
Kiribati 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.7
Belize 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5
Paraguay 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5
United Arab Emirates 5.0 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.4
Tonga 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6
Papua New Guinea 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.8
Mongolia 5.1 4.9 4.6 4.4 4.1
Vanuatu 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0 4.9
Bolivia 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0 4.9
Lesotho 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.9
Nicaragua 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.8 4.6
Bangladesh 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.7 4.5
Egypt, Arab Rep. 5.3 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.7
Timor-Leste 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3
Botswana 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.7
Nepal 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.2
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.0
Tajikistan 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.2
Samoa 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1
Honduras 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1
Algeria 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.7
Gabon 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.4
Congo, Rep. 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3
Guatemala 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3
Namibia 5.8 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.2
Cabo Verde 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.3
Equatorial Guinea 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9
Haiti 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.4
Central African Republic 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.8 5.8
Zimbabwe 6.0 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.2
Iran, Islamic Rep. 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.2 4.8
Libya 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.3 5.0
Ghana 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6
Sao Tome and Principe 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.9 5.8
Mauritania 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.0 6.0
Iraq 6.2 6.1 6.0 6.0 5.9
Syrian Arab Republic 6.2 6.0 5.7 5.5 5.3
Madagascar 6.2 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.3
Gambia, The 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.1
Djibouti 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1
Solomon Islands 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.0 5.9
Cambodia 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.6
Bhutan 6.2 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.6
Swaziland 6.3 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.7
Lao PDR 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.2
Pakistan 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.0
Mozambique 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.2
Jordan 6.4 6.2 5.9 5.7 5.5
Sudan 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.2
Tanzania 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.2
Saudi Arabia 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.0 5.9
Eritrea 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.4
Sierra Leone 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.7
Guinea 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6
Nigeria 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5
Cameroon 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.4
Guinea-Bissau 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.6
Zambia 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5
Kenya 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.2 6.0
Togo 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.4 6.3
South Sudan 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8
Liberia 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.5
Comoros 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.4
Congo, Dem. Rep. 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.1
Benin 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.7
Maldives 7.0 6.8 6.5 6.3 6.0
Cote d'Ivoire 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.6
Senegal 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.6
Uganda 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
Burkina Faso 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.0
Mali 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2
Chad 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3
Somalia 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4
Angola 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.2
Ethiopia 7.4 7.4 7.3 7.3 7.2
Malawi 7.4 7.3 7.2 7.1 7.0
Afghanistan 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5
Burundi 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.5
Niger 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7
Oman 8.1 7.9 7.7 7.5 7.2
Rwanda 8.2 8.0 7.8 7.6 7.3
Yemen, Rep. 8.9 8.8 8.8 8.7 8.6
Liechtenstein
Serbia
San Marino
St. Kitts and Nevis 2.8
Dominica 3.0
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Bermuda
Andorra
Northern Mariana Islands
Isle of Man
American Samoa
Turks and Caicos Islands
Curacao
Tuvalu
Monaco
Cayman Islands
West Bank and Gaza 6.7
Palau 2.8
Marshall Islands 5.9
Seychelles 3.0

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