Country name 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3
Italy 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3
Luxembourg 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5
Austria 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5
Germany 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4
Spain 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4
Denmark 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6
Greece 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4
Switzerland 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6
Korea, Rep. 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.6
Belgium 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6
Netherlands 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Finland 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7
Portugal 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6
Singapore 1.6 1.4 1.6 2.0 1.8
Croatia 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.6
Slovenia 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5
Canada 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8
Japan 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6
Norway 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9
Barbados 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
United Kingdom 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Hungary 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Cuba 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
France 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8
Sweden 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.0
Australia 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8
United States 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8
Czech Republic 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
Bulgaria 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9
Macao SAR, China 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8
Malta 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1
Montenegro 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9
New Zealand 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1
Belarus 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0
Ukraine 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.9
Mauritius 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2
Iceland 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.2
Antigua and Barbuda 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Lithuania 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0
St. Martin (French part) 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2
Slovak Republic 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1
Poland 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1
Latvia 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1
Russian Federation 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.0
Georgia 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2
Estonia 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2
Puerto Rico 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2
Aruba 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
Ireland 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1
Macedonia, FYR 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3
Thailand 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.2
Romania 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.2
Korea, Dem. Rep. 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3
Cyprus 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4
Guyana 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Uruguay 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Armenia 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6
Moldova 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5
Chile 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6
Sri Lanka 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5
Bahamas, The 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7
St. Kitts and Nevis 2.8
China 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.6
Trinidad and Tobago 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6
Azerbaijan 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
Dominica 3.0
Seychelles 3.0
Israel 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9
Argentina 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0
Suriname 3.3 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.8
Guam 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1
Albania 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0
Jamaica 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0
Brazil 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.9
Kazakhstan 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.1 2.8
New Caledonia 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.1 3.0
Panama 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.1
Colombia 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2
Lebanon 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1
Kuwait 4.1 3.7 3.3 2.9 2.6
Costa Rica 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3
Turkey 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.2
Indonesia 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.2
Fiji 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4
Malaysia 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5
French Polynesia 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5
Venezuela, RB 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.5
Mexico 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5
St. Lucia 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5
Dominican Republic 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5
Brunei Darussalam 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6
Myanmar 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.6
Vietnam 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.7
Kyrgyz Republic 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.9
Ecuador 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.9
South Africa 4.3 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.8
Tunisia 4.5 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.7
India 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.0
Bahrain 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9
Peru 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.0 3.9
Grenada 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.0
El Salvador 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.1 4.0
Uzbekistan 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.2
Qatar 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.2
Philippines 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.4
Morocco 4.9 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.2
Turkmenistan 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.4
Kiribati 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.7
Belize 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6
Egypt, Arab Rep. 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.5
Paraguay 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6
United Arab Emirates 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.7 4.6
Tonga 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7
Mongolia 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.6 4.4
Papua New Guinea 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.9
Bolivia 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0
Vanuatu 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0
Nicaragua 5.4 5.3 5.1 5.0 4.9
Bangladesh 5.5 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.7
Lesotho 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.0
Botswana 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.9
Timor-Leste 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1
Nepal 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.2
Samoa 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2
Tajikistan 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.3
Honduras 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.2
Algeria 6.0 5.7 5.5 5.3 5.0
Congo, Rep. 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4
Gabon 5.7 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.5
Namibia 5.9 5.8 5.6 5.5 5.4
Cabo Verde 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.4
Sao Tome and Principe 6.0 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5
Iran, Islamic Rep. 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.2
Guatemala 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.6
Zimbabwe 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.6 5.4
Haiti 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.5
Equatorial Guinea 5.8 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9
Marshall Islands 5.9
Central African Republic 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.8
Libya 6.6 6.3 5.9 5.6 5.3
Ghana 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7
Syrian Arab Republic 6.4 6.2 6.0 5.7 5.5
Cambodia 6.2 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.8
Mauritania 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.0
Iraq 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.0 6.0
Bhutan 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.0 5.8
Solomon Islands 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.0
Comoros 6.6 6.4 6.1 5.9 5.7
Jordan 6.6 6.4 6.2 5.9 5.7
Gambia, The 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1
Swaziland 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 5.9
Djibouti 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1
Madagascar 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.3 6.3
Pakistan 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1
Lao PDR 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.2
Saudi Arabia 6.7 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.0
Sudan 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.2
Mozambique 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.3
Tanzania 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3
Eritrea 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.5
Kenya 6.9 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.2
Nigeria 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5
Cameroon 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5
Guinea 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6
Zambia 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.6 6.5
Togo 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.5
Guinea-Bissau 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7
Liberia 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.6
Cote d'Ivoire 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.6 6.5
Sierra Leone 6.9 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.6
South Sudan 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8
Maldives 7.2 7.1 6.9 6.7 6.4
Benin 7.0 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.8
Senegal 7.1 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.7
Congo, Dem. Rep. 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.1
Burkina Faso 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.0
Mali 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
Uganda 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
Chad 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.3
Angola 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2
Somalia 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3
Ethiopia 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.3 7.3
Malawi 7.5 7.5 7.4 7.3 7.1
Burundi 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.6
Afghanistan 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7
Niger 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8
Oman 8.2 8.1 7.9 7.7 7.5
Rwanda 8.3 8.2 8.0 7.8 7.5
Yemen, Rep. 9.2 9.1 9.0 8.9 8.8
Isle of Man
Liechtenstein
Northern Mariana Islands
Greenland
Turks and Caicos Islands
San Marino
Tuvalu
Palau
Middle East (developing only)
Curacao
Cayman Islands
Faeroe Islands
Serbia
Monaco
Bermuda
West Bank and Gaza
Andorra
American Samoa
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)

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