Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Italy 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3
Austria 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5
Spain 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4
Germany 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.5
Greece 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4
Luxembourg 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6
Netherlands 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Korea, Rep. 1.6 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6
Denmark 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7
Belgium 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6
Switzerland 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6
Portugal 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Slovenia 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5
Japan 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5
Canada 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8
Finland 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8
Barbados 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7
Croatia 1.8 1.6 1.8 1.6 1.6
Cuba 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Hungary 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9
France 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
United Kingdom 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Australia 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9
Norway 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8
Macao SAR, China 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7
United States 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1
Czech Republic 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
Singapore 1.4 1.6 2.0 1.8 1.9
Sweden 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.1
Bulgaria 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8
Lithuania 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0
Ukraine 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8
Belarus 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9
Malta 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0
Antigua and Barbuda 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
New Zealand 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2
Montenegro 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Latvia 2.1 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0
Russian Federation 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9
Slovak Republic 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
St. Martin (French part) 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1
Poland 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1
Mauritius 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3
Ireland 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1
Georgia 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2
Puerto Rico 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2
Thailand 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1
Iceland 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.3
Macedonia, FYR 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2
Estonia 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1
Aruba 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2
Romania 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.2 1.8
Greenland 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.4
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep. 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3
Cyprus 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.4
Uruguay 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Armenia 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.5
Chile 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5
Moldova 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.4
Faroe Islands 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.8
Sri Lanka 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.5
China 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.4
Bahamas, The 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6
Trinidad and Tobago 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5
Azerbaijan 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7
Israel 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0
Argentina 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0
Kuwait 3.7 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.6
Brazil 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.8
Jamaica 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0 2.9
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0
Guam 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.0
New Caledonia 3.2 3.3 3.1 3.0 3.2
Albania 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.0
Kazakhstan 3.1 3.2 3.1 2.8 2.7
Colombia 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0
Lebanon 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0
Panama 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1
Costa Rica 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2
Turkey 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1
Indonesia 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.1
Suriname 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3
Fiji 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4
Malaysia 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5
French Polynesia 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4
St. Lucia 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4
Venezuela, RB 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4
Dominican Republic 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.5
Brunei Darussalam 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.5
Mexico 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.5
Guyana 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6
Myanmar 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5
Vietnam 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6
Tunisia 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.4
South Africa 4.2 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.7
Ecuador 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8
Kyrgyz Republic 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.6
Bahrain 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.7
Peru 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8
Grenada 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.8
El Salvador 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9
India 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0
Uzbekistan 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.1
Qatar 4.7 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.0
Morocco 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.1
Philippines 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3
Turkmenistan 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3
Mongolia 5.1 4.9 4.6 4.4 4.1
Belize 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5
United Arab Emirates 5.0 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.4
Paraguay 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.5
Tonga 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6
Kiribati 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.7
Bangladesh 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.7 4.5
Nicaragua 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.8 4.6
Papua New Guinea 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.8
Vanuatu 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.0 4.9
Egypt, Arab Rep. 5.3 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.7
Botswana 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.7
Bolivia 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0 4.9
Lesotho 5.2 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.9
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.0
Algeria 5.6 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.7
Timor-Leste 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3
Samoa 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1
Nepal 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.2
Honduras 5.6 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1
Tajikistan 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.2
Iran, Islamic Rep. 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.2 4.8
Guatemala 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3
Namibia 5.8 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.2
Congo, Rep. 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3
Libya 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.3 5.0
Gabon 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.4
Cabo Verde 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.4 5.3
Zimbabwe 6.0 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.2
Haiti 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.4
Syrian Arab Republic 6.2 6.0 5.7 5.5 5.3
Ghana 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6
Central African Republic 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.8 5.8
Equatorial Guinea 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9
Sao Tome and Principe 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.9 5.8
Jordan 6.4 6.2 5.9 5.7 5.5
Cambodia 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.6
Bhutan 6.2 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.6
Iraq 6.2 6.1 6.0 6.0 5.9
Swaziland 6.3 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.7
Solomon Islands 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.0 5.9
Mauritania 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.0 6.0
Gambia, The 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.1
Djibouti 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1
Saudi Arabia 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.0 5.9
Pakistan 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.0
Madagascar 6.2 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.3
Lao PDR 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.2
Sudan 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.2
Mozambique 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.2
Tanzania 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.2
Kenya 6.8 6.6 6.4 6.2 6.0
Eritrea 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.4
Maldives 7.0 6.8 6.5 6.3 6.0
Togo 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.4 6.3
Cameroon 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.4
Nigeria 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5
Guinea 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6
Zambia 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.5
Comoros 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.4
Sierra Leone 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.7
Liberia 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.5
Guinea-Bissau 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.6
Cote d'Ivoire 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.6
South Sudan 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8
Senegal 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.6
Benin 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.7
Congo, Dem. Rep. 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.1
Burkina Faso 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.0
Uganda 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
Mali 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2
Malawi 7.4 7.3 7.2 7.1 7.0
Chad 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3
Angola 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.2
Somalia 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4
Ethiopia 7.4 7.4 7.3 7.3 7.2
Afghanistan 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5
Burundi 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.5
Niger 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7
Oman 8.1 7.9 7.7 7.5 7.2
Rwanda 8.2 8.0 7.8 7.6 7.3
Yemen, Rep. 8.9 8.8 8.8 8.7 8.6
Dominica 3.0
Serbia
Liechtenstein
Isle of Man
Seychelles 3.0
Andorra
Curacao
Cayman Islands
Monaco
Bermuda
American Samoa
San Marino
St. Kitts and Nevis 2.8
Marshall Islands 5.9
Palau 2.8
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
West Bank and Gaza 6.7
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu
Northern Mariana Islands

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