Country name 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Spain 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
Latvia 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2
Macao SAR, China 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0
Czech Republic 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0
Italy 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
Bulgaria 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2
Russian Federation 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2
Slovenia 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2
Greece 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2
Germany 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4
Romania 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3
Belarus 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.3
Ukraine 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.1
Estonia 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3
Japan 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3
Portugal 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5
Austria 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3
Hungary 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3
Slovak Republic 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3
Lithuania 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Switzerland 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4
Netherlands 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7
Korea, Rep. 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.4
Poland 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.4
Belgium 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Canada 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5
Sweden 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5
Cuba 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
China 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5
Croatia 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.4
Singapore 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5
Barbados 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8
United Kingdom 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7
France 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Denmark 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7
Finland 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7
Luxembourg 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7
Australia 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Moldova 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6
Georgia 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6
Montenegro 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Thailand 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7
St. Martin (French part) 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Ireland 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
Norway 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.9
Trinidad and Tobago 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8
Macedonia, FYR 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7
Armenia 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.7
Puerto Rico 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0
New Zealand 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0
United States 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Aruba 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9
Malta 1.8 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8
Cyprus 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8
Azerbaijan 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1
Korea, Dem. Rep. 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0
Mauritius 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1
Iceland 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0
Kazakhstan 2.3 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.7
Antigua and Barbuda 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3
Sri Lanka 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2
Chile 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1
Uruguay 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1
Bahamas, The 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.2
Brazil 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4
Vietnam 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.1
Greenland 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.4 2.3
Guyana 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6
Tunisia 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.1
Lebanon 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.3
Mongolia 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.2
Indonesia 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.4
Kuwait 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.9 2.9
New Caledonia 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.5
Turkey 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.5
Albania 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.5
Costa Rica 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.5
Jamaica 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6
Argentina 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.5
Suriname 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8
French Polynesia 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.5
St. Lucia 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.4
Myanmar 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5
Brunei Darussalam 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5
Colombia 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.7
Guam 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8
Panama 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8
Mexico 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7
Israel 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0
Iran, Islamic Rep. 3.2 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.3
Grenada 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.7
Kyrgyz Republic 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.6
Bahrain 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8
Venezuela, RB 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9
South Africa 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9
Dominican Republic 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9
Morocco 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.8
Algeria 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6
United Arab Emirates 3.4 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.8
Peru 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0
Fiji 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1
Ecuador 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1
Malaysia 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0
Uzbekistan 3.6 3.3 3.1 2.8 2.7
Turkmenistan 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.9
India 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2
El Salvador 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1
Qatar 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3
Libya 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.1
Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.4
Bangladesh 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.2
Botswana 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5
Nicaragua 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.4
Philippines 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9
Paraguay 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.8
Belize 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7
Maldives 4.6 4.3 4.0 3.8 3.5
Zimbabwe 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.1
Kiribati 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0
Syrian Arab Republic 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1
Cabo Verde 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.1 3.9
Tonga 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.3
Bhutan 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.8
Cambodia 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.1 3.9
Tajikistan 4.6 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.1
Namibia 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.1
Lesotho 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2
Bolivia 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2
Honduras 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.1
Jordan 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2
Nepal 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.3 4.2
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.4
Papua New Guinea 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6
Vanuatu 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.5
Samoa 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.5
Swaziland 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.3
Haiti 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.4
Saudi Arabia 5.0 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.2
Sao Tome and Principe 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.7
Gabon 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.7
Ghana 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7
Oman 5.3 5.0 4.6 4.3 4.0
Solomon Islands 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8
Congo, Rep. 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1
Guatemala 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0 4.9
Djibouti 5.4 5.1 5.0 4.8 4.6
Kenya 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0
Lao PDR 5.4 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.4
Pakistan 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.7
Comoros 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3
Iraq 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.1
Central African Republic 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.5
Togo 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.4
Mauritania 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.4
Cote d'Ivoire 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.5
Sudan 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.6 5.5
Tanzania 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.7
Equatorial Guinea 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.8 5.8
Cameroon 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.7
Madagascar 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.7
Mozambique 6.0 5.9 5.9 5.8 5.8
Senegal 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6
Gambia, The 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.9
Liberia 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.0 5.9
West Bank and Gaza 6.3 6.1 5.9 5.7 5.6
Sierra Leone 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.0 6.0
Zambia 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1
Guinea-Bissau 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.0 5.9
Nigeria 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1
Eritrea 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.0
Rwanda 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.0
Guinea 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.0
Benin 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.1
South Sudan 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.2
Malawi 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3
Timor-Leste 6.4 6.6 6.8 7.0 7.1
Burkina Faso 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.7
Mali 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9
Ethiopia 7.0 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.7
Angola 7.0 7.0 6.9 6.9 6.9
Uganda 7.0 7.0 7.0 6.9 6.9
Congo, Dem. Rep. 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.1
Burundi 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.1
Yemen, Rep. 7.6 7.3 7.0 6.8 6.6
Chad 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4
Somalia 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7
Niger 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.7
Afghanistan 7.8 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.8
Monaco
Seychelles 2.1 2.0 2.0
American Samoa
Marshall Islands 5.7
Curacao
Tuvalu
Bermuda 1.8
St. Kitts and Nevis 2.4
Turks and Caicos Islands
Andorra
Dominica 1.9
Isle of Man
Liechtenstein
Faeroe Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
Serbia 1.7 1.6
Cayman Islands
Palau 2.9
Middle East (developing only)
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
San Marino

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