Country name 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Hong Kong SAR, China 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0
Macao SAR, China 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0
Latvia 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2
Bulgaria 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2
Spain 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
Czech Republic 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1
Ukraine 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.1
Italy 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
Slovenia 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2
Russian Federation 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2
Greece 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2
Belarus 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.3
Estonia 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3
Hungary 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3
Romania 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3
Germany 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4
Slovak Republic 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3
Austria 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3
Japan 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3
Poland 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.4
Korea, Rep. 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.4
Croatia 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.4
Lithuania 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Switzerland 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Portugal 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.4
Singapore 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5
Sweden 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5
Canada 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5
China 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5
Belgium 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Cuba 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Netherlands 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7
Moldova 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6
Luxembourg 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7
Georgia 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6
Finland 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7
United Kingdom 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7
Denmark 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7
Barbados 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8
Thailand 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7
Armenia 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.7
Australia 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
France 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Macedonia, FYR 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7
Kazakhstan 2.3 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.7
Trinidad and Tobago 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8
Norway 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.9
Montenegro 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
St. Martin (French part) 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
Cyprus 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8
Malta 1.8 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8
New Zealand 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 2.0
Puerto Rico 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0
Aruba 2.1 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9
Ireland 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
Mauritius 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1
United States 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Azerbaijan 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1
Korea, Dem. Rep. 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0
Seychelles 2.1 2.0 2.0
Iceland 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0
Vietnam 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.1
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1
Chile 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1
Tunisia 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.1
Sri Lanka 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2
Bahamas, The 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.2
Uruguay 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3
Antigua and Barbuda 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3
Mongolia 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.2
Greenland 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.4 2.3
Lebanon 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.3
Brazil 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.4
Iran, Islamic Rep. 3.2 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.3
St. Lucia 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.4
Indonesia 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5
Guyana 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6
Albania 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.5
Costa Rica 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.5
New Caledonia 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.5
Turkey 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.5
Brunei Darussalam 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5
French Polynesia 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.5
Myanmar 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.5
Argentina 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.5
Kyrgyz Republic 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.6
Jamaica 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6
Colombia 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.7
Suriname 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8
Grenada 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.7
Mexico 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7
Algeria 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6
Uzbekistan 3.6 3.3 3.1 2.8 2.7
Panama 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8
Guam 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8
Bahrain 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8
Kuwait 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.9 2.9
United Arab Emirates 3.4 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.8
Morocco 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.8
Venezuela, RB 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9
South Africa 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9
Dominican Republic 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9
Israel 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0
Turkmenistan 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.9
Peru 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.0
Malaysia 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.0
Ecuador 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1
Fiji 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1
El Salvador 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1
Libya 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.1
India 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2
Bangladesh 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.2
Qatar 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3
Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.4
Nicaragua 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.4
Botswana 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5
Maldives 4.6 4.3 4.0 3.8 3.5
Belize 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7
Paraguay 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.8
Philippines 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9
Bhutan 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.8
Cabo Verde 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.1 3.9
Cambodia 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.1 3.9
Kiribati 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0
Zimbabwe 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.1
Syrian Arab Republic 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1
Tajikistan 4.6 4.5 4.3 4.2 4.1
Honduras 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.1
Namibia 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.2 4.1
Jordan 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2
Oman 5.3 5.0 4.6 4.3 4.0
Tonga 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.3
Bolivia 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2
Lesotho 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2
Nepal 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.3 4.2
Saudi Arabia 5.0 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.2
Swaziland 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.3
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.4
Vanuatu 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.5
Haiti 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.5 4.4
Samoa 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.5
Papua New Guinea 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6
Lao PDR 5.4 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.4
Gabon 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.7
Djibouti 5.4 5.1 5.0 4.8 4.6
Sao Tome and Principe 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.7
Ghana 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7
Pakistan 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.9 4.7
Solomon Islands 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8
Guatemala 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0 4.9
Kenya 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.0
Congo, Rep. 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1
Iraq 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.1
Comoros 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3
Togo 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.4
Mauritania 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.4
Central African Republic 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.5
Cote d'Ivoire 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.5
Sudan 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.6 5.5
Senegal 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6
Tanzania 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.7 5.7
West Bank and Gaza 6.3 6.1 5.9 5.7 5.6
Madagascar 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.7
Cameroon 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.7
Mozambique 6.0 5.9 5.9 5.8 5.8
Equatorial Guinea 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.8 5.8
Gambia, The 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.9
Liberia 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.0 5.9
Guinea-Bissau 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.0 5.9
Sierra Leone 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.0 6.0
Rwanda 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.0
Eritrea 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.0
Guinea 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.0
Zambia 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.1
Benin 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.1
Nigeria 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.1
South Sudan 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.3 6.2
Malawi 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.3
Burkina Faso 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.7 6.7
Ethiopia 7.0 6.9 6.9 6.8 6.7
Yemen, Rep. 7.6 7.3 7.0 6.8 6.6
Mali 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9
Angola 7.0 7.0 6.9 6.9 6.9
Uganda 7.0 7.0 7.0 6.9 6.9
Timor-Leste 6.4 6.6 6.8 7.0 7.1
Burundi 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.1
Congo, Dem. Rep. 7.3 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.1
Chad 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4
Somalia 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7
Niger 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.7
Afghanistan 7.8 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.8
Liechtenstein
Middle East (developing only)
St. Kitts and Nevis 2.4
Northern Mariana Islands
American Samoa
Isle of Man
Monaco
Curacao
Andorra
Bermuda 1.8
Dominica 1.9
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Faeroe Islands
Turks and Caicos Islands
Palau 2.9
Tuvalu
Cayman Islands
Marshall Islands 5.7
Serbia 1.7 1.6
San Marino

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