Country name 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
Sudan 9.2 8.1 6.7 10.1 13.1
Lao PDR 10.4 13.6 25.6 42.7 34.7
India 10.6 9.8 9.9 10.8 12.1
Mozambique 11.2 11.9 31.4 40.1 39.5
United States 13.1 13.3 13.9 14.9 15.1
Argentina 13.8 10.4 11.0 11.5 18.0
Ethiopia 14.0 15.8 13.5 14.3 12.3
Iran, Islamic Rep. 15.1 8.9 16.8 17.3 24.5
Bangladesh 15.9 15.7 15.4 16.3 17.8
Vietnam 18.1 11.2 9.0 14.9 71.7
Uganda 20.3 18.9 18.6 17.8 10.3
Colombia 22.0 25.7 24.6 25.6 27.1
Chad 22.1 29.1 28.8 25.1 27.6
Japan 22.2 16.5 15.4 15.0 16.0
China 22.6 24.7 30.5 33.1 32.3
Guatemala 23.0 27.7 34.4 32.9 32.8
Cameroon 23.0 23.4 20.6 17.6 26.4
Nepal 23.4 21.1 24.4 25.0 20.9
Madagascar 23.7 20.5 24.7 26.0 26.3
Central African Republic 23.7 20.8 27.8 26.2 23.0
Bolivia 24.4 33.1 30.7 25.9 30.4
Mexico 24.9 30.4 33.7 32.8 32.1
Rwanda 25.0 27.7 21.6 20.0 17.5
Burkina Faso 26.0 24.0 24.9 22.8 18.6
Burundi 26.2 29.6 26.8 31.1 23.8
Australia 26.9 26.7 29.6 29.4 27.4
Paraguay 27.2 23.6 25.1 26.6 38.5
Ecuador 27.2 26.0 30.0 29.9 30.3
Pakistan 27.7 27.5 30.0 28.9 29.5
Turkey 28.7 24.5 27.9 28.6 25.6
Peru 29.5 33.2 28.1 38.7 25.1
Spain 30.1 24.8 26.2 26.7 28.0
Greece 30.6 30.0 29.9 23.2 29.8
Panama 32.0 28.1 29.5 21.7 26.7
Mali 32.1 39.0 28.6 36.9 37.3
Philippines 32.8 34.0 38.5 41.6 44.5
Sierra Leone 32.8 56.3 38.1 24.8 34.4
Ghana 32.9 33.3 42.0 36.8 43.6
Indonesia 33.0 33.5 39.5 36.8 38.1
Uruguay 34.2 33.3 31.6 31.2 33.2
Syrian Arab Republic 34.2 30.5 33.6 33.6 51.5
Italy 36.5 30.8 30.2 30.0 31.7
France 37.8 32.8 32.7 33.9 36.1
Zimbabwe 38.0 39.1 39.0 37.7 38.2
Venezuela, RB 38.9 29.1 44.6 39.3 50.1
Kenya 39.0 38.9 34.1 36.5 37.6
French Polynesia 39.1 33.8 35.9 32.9 33.3
Algeria 39.1 26.8 22.9 26.2 34.2
Bermuda 41.0 43.0 34.6 36.7 39.0
South Africa 41.2 39.5 35.1 35.4 32.6
Chile 41.7 43.0 46.0 50.1 53.6
Thailand 42.1 41.9 48.8 58.8 63.5
Morocco 42.1 33.4 34.2 34.0 34.8
Egypt, Arab Rep. 42.7 40.2 50.8 82.8 51.3
United Kingdom 43.0 38.8 38.3 36.8 37.8
El Salvador 43.2 44.8 40.0 38.6 37.9
Costa Rica 43.2 41.4 43.5 43.8 45.6
Niger 43.6 36.0 27.9 29.6 27.8
Comoros 45.4 35.1 32.6 35.7 30.7
Honduras 45.8 45.4 39.0 44.9 51.3
Senegal 46.9 37.9 32.3 33.5 39.0
Germany 46.9 41.7 40.4 41.1 43.8
Iraq 47.2 40.7 33.6 34.5 40.9
Nicaragua 47.2 38.3 28.6 39.5 91.4
Malawi 47.2 42.9 48.3 50.3 48.4
Canada 47.3 46.8 44.5 45.4 42.9
New Zealand 47.5 39.0 35.8 35.7 40.2
Finland 48.0 43.1 43.3 39.3 40.1
Portugal 49.2 43.6 48.3 51.2 52.6
Saudi Arabia 49.2 45.2 50.5 52.3 52.0
Trinidad and Tobago 49.8 57.1 55.9 56.5 64.8
Guinea-Bissau 50.0 53.8 50.0 49.9 38.9
Benin 50.7 43.0 39.0 49.0 42.5
Sweden 52.4 47.1 47.2 46.7 46.8
Sri Lanka 52.5 48.0 51.3 53.6 53.4
Tunisia 53.4 51.6 53.4 60.3 72.3
Switzerland 54.1 50.9 49.8 51.3 54.4
Norway 54.3 48.8 46.8 44.8 49.4
Angola 54.7 36.3 52.1 58.3 43.5
Austria 55.2 50.0 48.4 50.6 53.4
Denmark 56.8 50.3 46.9 48.4 51.5
Iceland 57.0 55.0 53.1 48.9 48.5
United Arab Emirates 57.5 50.3 53.9 56.7 66.6
Korea, Rep. 59.2 55.4 58.5 55.6 49.8
Equatorial Guinea 59.6 113.9 107.1 109.4 103.1
Dominican Republic 59.8 54.2 67.2 85.5 81.6
Maldives 59.8 49.3 79.3 77.1 83.4
Gambia, The 60.2 74.9 75.7 73.5 66.2
Cuba 60.9 63.9 51.6 47.7 47.7
Bhutan 61.6 63.1 56.1 71.2 58.0
Togo 62.7 48.6 53.5 52.9 53.0
Djibouti 63.1 62.4 56.6 54.2
Zambia 63.8 70.0 74.6 54.0 56.4
Cabo Verde 65.3 58.2 45.9 41.2 44.5
Fiji 65.6 59.8 64.4 80.5 90.9
Solomon Islands 65.9 65.5 60.8 57.9 56.9
Israel 68.1 60.5 64.3 56.4 57.0
Samoa 70.1 57.5 66.2 68.4 71.6
Jordan 70.5 49.4 53.9 59.8 76.6
Cote d'Ivoire 70.9 59.1 54.3 47.3 50.4
Cyprus 70.9 55.7 55.4 59.9 67.5
Grenada 71.8 79.9 72.4 67.7 59.6
Suriname 71.9 74.3 61.2 65.5 181.4
New Caledonia 72.4 54.0 57.2 51.5 65.9
Qatar 74.1 58.3 57.8 57.6 61.8
Nigeria 74.2 44.3 46.8 49.8 58.5
Seychelles 75.2 59.7 54.2 67.3 65.3
Tonga 76.6 68.9 66.1 58.1 59.2
Kuwait 76.9 73.2 61.5 66.7 73.1
Congo, Rep. 78.0 74.3 65.4 59.4 59.8
Papua New Guinea 79.2 79.8 74.0 76.4 82.7
Jamaica 79.8 56.7 59.1 59.3 64.0
Barbados 80.0 65.5 46.2 49.0 50.4
Vanuatu 80.8 63.2 66.5 59.9 64.4
Namibia 81.0 102.5 95.4 92.8 93.5
Mongolia 81.6 64.0 60.3 57.8 47.1
Oman 83.3 73.8 73.5 66.9 67.2
Gabon 84.0 62.8 61.5 51.8 56.5
Dominica 84.2 88.3 90.2 98.8 99.1
Liberia 84.6 79.8 70.9 64.3 138.0
Malaysia 87.3 87.0 95.2 106.8 122.4
Mauritius 88.7 91.1 99.4 105.2 105.5
Mauritania 89.0 72.4 72.9 62.0 67.1
Kiribati 89.2 77.8 83.6 87.5 94.7
Bahamas, The 89.4 72.7 65.4 58.5 80.4
Antigua and Barbuda 90.7 92.3 92.9 78.8 55.7
St. Kitts and Nevis 91.0 93.5 98.9 95.5 91.4
Netherlands 94.3 78.9 76.5 78.7 83.7
Guyana 95.3 90.2 143.0 107.8 127.7
Ireland 95.9 84.6 87.5 90.9 97.2
St. Lucia 96.2 107.2 106.4 122.3 122.9
Brunei Darussalam 101.8 104.0 92.3 91.1 91.8
Malta 103.7 96.4 99.6 102.4 109.6
Greenland 113.8 102.8 108.3 101.3 87.9
Belize 116.2 102.3 89.0 94.3 93.9
Botswana 117.3 113.1 128.4 100.6 108.9
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 125.8 118.0 106.1 125.8 113.9
Belgium 126.9 114.1 110.9 113.3 120.4
Macao SAR, China 137.8 139.9 141.2 133.8 126.0
Swaziland 139.3 140.7 146.9 142.2 155.7
Lesotho 147.8 130.8 139.7 151.5 151.3
Bulgaria 153.4 144.8 112.6 147.8 144.4
Bahrain 164.4 150.9 151.7 135.2 154.4
Hong Kong SAR, China 171.6 175.3 196.4 224.1 219.5
Singapore 264.6 255.9 283.5 313.7 300.5
Macedonia, FYR
Afghanistan
Belarus
Congo, Dem. Rep.
Middle East (developing only)
Palau
Myanmar
Cayman Islands
Libya
Tanzania 21.5 30.7
Azerbaijan
Turkmenistan
Poland
South Sudan
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Faeroe Islands
Puerto Rico
West Bank and Gaza
Kyrgyz Republic
Luxembourg
Romania 49.4 47.1 45.7
Timor-Leste
Russian Federation
Guinea 51.0 49.6 46.8 48.7
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Tuvalu
Ukraine
Isle of Man
Croatia
Armenia
Albania
Montenegro
Eritrea
St. Martin (French part)
Estonia
Marshall Islands
Serbia
Lithuania
Northern Mariana Islands
Hungary
Aruba
Tajikistan
Liechtenstein
Curacao
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Haiti
Slovak Republic
Georgia
Slovenia
Andorra
Brazil 10.2 15.7 12.7
Turks and Caicos Islands
Somalia
American Samoa
San Marino
Cambodia
Sao Tome and Principe
Guam
Kazakhstan
Uzbekistan
Czech Republic
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Moldova
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Monaco
Yemen, Rep.
Latvia
Lebanon 95.5 100.1

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