Country name 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
Bangladesh 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3
Guatemala 7.0 7.1 7.9 8.0 7.9
Hong Kong SAR, China 7.0 7.0 6.3 6.1 6.3
Macao SAR, China 7.2 7.5 7.3 8.0 9.1
Dominican Republic 7.5 7.1 5.8 5.6 5.6
Turkey 7.5 7.6 7.8 7.6 9.3
Philippines 7.6 8.0 8.4 9.0 9.5
Congo, Dem. Rep. 7.7 8.0 9.9 12.7 10.1
Burundi 7.8 9.8 9.7 10.7 10.2
Sierra Leone 7.9 6.3 9.4 6.7 7.3
Tajikistan 8.1 8.5 8.7 8.0 8.7
Lao PDR 8.7 8.6 8.3 10.9
Cameroon 9.0 11.3 12.2 10.7 10.8
Latvia 9.0 9.3 9.8 9.6 9.1
Mexico 9.2 9.1 8.8 8.4 8.3
Albania 9.3 9.3 9.6 9.5 8.8
Nepal 9.4 9.1 9.1 9.0 10.0
Ghana 9.4 11.1 10.6 9.7 9.8
Madagascar 9.8 8.8 9.1 8.1 8.8
Brazil 9.9 10.7 12.2 12.6 15.5
Switzerland 10.0 10.2 10.1 10.3 10.7
Sri Lanka 10.2 10.3 9.9 9.8 10.5
Korea, Rep. 10.4 10.2 9.9 10.0 10.7
Bolivia 10.6 9.4 11.1 11.4 11.9
Colombia 10.7 9.8 8.7 8.6 9.2
Venezuela, RB 10.8 11.1 10.5 10.5 9.6
Niger 10.8 11.3 11.2 15.5 15.7
Indonesia 11.2 11.0 9.4 8.5 8.7
Rwanda 11.3 11.9 13.5 13.5 12.7
Mali 11.4 14.9 14.2 13.7 13.6
Mauritius 11.5 10.5 11.7 12.7 12.2
India 11.5 12.1 12.5 12.2 12.2
Chad 11.7 13.9 15.8 12.7 15.0
Peru 12.0 12.8 12.5 8.7 8.8
Pakistan 12.1 12.8 13.5 15.5 16.8
Sudan 12.3 13.8 12.8 7.0 7.0
Bahamas, The 12.5 12.1 12.0 13.6
Nigeria 12.7 12.6 7.2 7.6 5.4
Georgia 12.8 13.1 13.4 13.6 11.8
Mozambique 12.9 13.2 11.1 11.9 13.1
Togo 13.1 17.6 18.0 13.5 13.8
Honduras 13.1 14.3 14.2 14.1 14.3
Ethiopia 13.1 13.6 13.5 15.7 17.0
Singapore 13.4 12.7 11.5 9.9 9.7
Chile 13.4 12.6 10.9 10.5 10.3
Costa Rica 13.5 13.0 12.2 12.5 13.6
Thailand 13.5 12.8 11.3 10.0 9.5
Portugal 13.6 13.4 13.3 13.8 14.5
Japan 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.5 13.4
Cyprus 14.1 14.1 16.6 16.7 16.0
Cote d'Ivoire 14.1 15.1 16.3 17.1 18.3
China 14.4 14.8 13.9 13.1 13.8
Uruguay 14.4 14.3 13.2 12.2 12.3
Uganda 14.5 9.0 8.0 8.1 7.0
Ecuador 14.8 15.6 15.3 16.3 13.7
Malaysia 14.8 16.4 14.9 14.2 14.1
Jamaica 14.9 14.3 13.8 14.4 12.9
Puerto Rico 15.1 14.7 14.4 14.2 14.4
Central African Republic 15.1 15.6 17.5 16.1 15.8
Spain 15.2 15.0 15.5 15.4 15.9
Luxembourg 15.2 14.9 15.8 15.0 14.6
Benin 15.4 15.3 15.5 13.2 11.1
El Salvador 15.5 14.2 13.7 12.7 12.2
United States 15.8 16.0 15.9 15.6 15.6
Gambia, The 15.9 18.4 21.7 17.8 14.4
Tonga 16.0 15.8 16.7 16.3 17.4
Malta 16.4 16.1 16.5 16.0 16.5
Congo, Rep. 16.5 25.0 20.6 21.0 19.5
Bulgaria 16.6 16.9 16.9 16.3 16.5
Algeria 16.7 19.0 19.4 20.1 18.0
Equatorial Guinea 16.9 18.7 15.1 20.5 16.6
Tunisia 17.0 17.8 16.9 16.6 17.3
Lesotho 17.1 16.7 31.0 33.1 28.6
Iran, Islamic Rep. 17.2 16.4 15.4 16.3 13.1
Egypt, Arab Rep. 17.2 16.5 14.3 13.9 12.6
Burkina Faso 17.3 19.0 19.9 20.0 20.1
St. Lucia 17.3 20.0 19.2 16.9 17.9
Senegal 17.4 17.6 17.5 18.1 17.8
Kenya 17.5 18.3 18.6 18.4 18.1
Iceland 17.6 18.0 18.9 19.9 19.3
Malawi 17.7 19.7 19.1 15.7 16.3
Guinea-Bissau 17.9 13.2 10.7 9.6 11.2
Guyana 18.1 31.5 27.4 28.1 16.5
Antigua and Barbuda 18.1 18.2 16.6 19.4 19.0
Morocco 18.2 18.1 19.1 18.1 17.8
South Africa 18.2 18.8 19.2 18.5 19.2
New Zealand 18.3 18.5 18.1 18.0 18.1
Italy 18.3 18.0 18.8 19.2 19.0
Austria 18.3 18.5 18.5 18.3 18.0
Norway 18.5 19.6 20.7 20.9 20.7
Australia 18.8 18.9 18.8 18.0 17.3
Greece 18.9 17.9 18.3 16.1 17.1
Barbados 18.9 17.7 17.1 17.3 17.9
Fiji 19.1 17.3 17.4 14.4 17.3
Grenada 19.5 18.6 20.4 18.9 22.4
Panama 19.6 20.5 22.0 20.9 19.3
Finland 19.7 20.0 20.3 19.6 19.5
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 19.7 19.6 19.9 18.1 19.2
United Kingdom 19.8 19.8 19.3 18.6 18.4
Zimbabwe 20.2 20.6 23.4 27.5 18.7
Gabon 20.4 25.8 24.6 19.8 14.2
Germany 20.5 20.4 20.6 20.3 19.4
Ireland 20.7 20.9 19.8 18.0 16.7
Swaziland 20.8 20.1 19.4 17.5 17.4
Belize 21.1 20.5 17.9 16.6 15.2
Canada 21.8 21.9 21.2 21.1 21.4
Namibia 21.9 22.9 24.5 23.3 21.9
Netherlands 22.4 22.3 23.2 22.6 21.9
Kuwait 22.4 27.0 22.0 26.3 25.4
France 22.4 22.1 21.9 21.5 20.9
Dominica 22.5 20.5 20.0 19.3 20.9
St. Kitts and Nevis 22.5 19.8 19.4 17.6 17.4
Belgium 22.7 22.6 22.4 21.0 20.3
Trinidad and Tobago 22.7 23.4 21.6 15.7 13.3
Bahrain 22.8 27.2 24.4 24.4 24.6
Botswana 23.0 24.0 26.9 23.9 22.7
Mongolia 23.2 26.2 26.3 25.7 23.2
Papua New Guinea 23.5 23.0 22.4 20.9 24.5
Bhutan 23.7 18.6 14.0 12.6 19.6
Syrian Arab Republic 23.8 21.5 18.0 13.2 16.0
Zambia 23.9 26.9 20.4 14.9 13.7
Denmark 24.2 23.0 24.2 24.6 24.3
Sweden 25.6 25.3 24.6 23.9 24.2
Jordan 27.0 25.3 25.7 25.7 25.5
Liberia 27.0 22.0
Oman 27.1 33.2 30.4 29.6 27.1
Comoros 27.5 27.6 27.3 27.1 27.6
Mauritania 29.1 23.6 24.4 24.3 25.3
Cuba 31.1 32.1 32.0 31.8 31.7
Saudi Arabia 31.9 34.7 35.2 30.9 33.6
Angola 32.4 37.2 27.9 31.5 28.6
Suriname 33.7 36.8 37.6 36.5 30.0
Vanuatu 34.4 37.2 35.8 34.2 30.3
Seychelles 34.6 38.8 34.4 31.8 33.3
Nicaragua 35.7 35.4 34.2 32.2 26.7
Israel 36.3 30.9 34.0 31.6 29.4
New Caledonia 37.8 40.7
Kiribati 54.5 54.0 50.7 45.9 53.2
Turks and Caicos Islands
Myanmar
Estonia
Cayman Islands
Bermuda
Montenegro
Uzbekistan 1.4 2.2 3.4
Northern Mariana Islands
St. Martin (French part)
Monaco
Djibouti
Moldova
Argentina 4.7 4.3 4.5
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
United Arab Emirates
Palau
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Croatia
Afghanistan
Marshall Islands
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Paraguay
Cambodia
Iraq
Andorra
Aruba
Poland
Guinea 11.4 11.9 11.2 11.7
Cabo Verde
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Greenland
Qatar
French Polynesia
Romania
Yemen, Rep.
Russian Federation 20.1
Libya
Maldives
Kyrgyz Republic 22.8 22.0 19.7
Samoa
Kosovo
San Marino
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Sao Tome and Principe
Kazakhstan
Curacao
Isle of Man
Czech Republic
Tanzania
Serbia
Timor-Leste
Macedonia, FYR
Hungary
American Samoa
Haiti
Lithuania
Turkmenistan 21.3 21.6 22.5
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Tuvalu
Slovak Republic
Ukraine 17.3
Slovenia
Guam
Solomon Islands
Belarus
Somalia
Eritrea
Liechtenstein
Vietnam 7.8
South Sudan
West Bank and Gaza
Brunei Darussalam 24.3
Faeroe Islands
Lebanon 18.1

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