Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Uzbekistan 1.4 2.2 3.4 25.4
Bangladesh 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.1
Argentina 4.7 4.3 4.5 3.1
Dominican Republic 7.1 5.8 5.6 5.6 4.3
Hong Kong SAR, China 7.0 6.3 6.1 6.3 6.8
Nigeria 12.6 7.2 7.6 5.4 5.0
Macao SAR, China 7.5 7.3 8.0 9.1 9.9
Turkey 7.6 7.8 7.6 9.3 11.0
Guatemala 7.1 7.9 8.0 7.9 6.6
Uganda 9.0 8.0 8.1 7.0 7.5
Lao PDR 8.6 8.3 10.9
Philippines 8.0 8.4 9.0 9.5 10.1
Colombia 9.8 8.7 8.6 9.2 9.4
Tajikistan 8.5 8.7 8.0 8.7 8.7
Mexico 9.1 8.8 8.4 8.3 8.4
Nepal 9.1 9.1 9.0 10.0 8.7
Madagascar 8.8 9.1 8.1 8.8 8.0
Sierra Leone 6.3 9.4 6.7 7.3 7.8
Indonesia 11.0 9.4 8.5 8.7 8.8
Albania 9.3 9.6 9.5 8.8 18.5
Barbados 10.0 9.7 9.8 10.1 11.4
Burundi 9.8 9.7 10.7 10.2 10.8
Congo, Dem. Rep. 8.0 9.9 12.7 10.1 11.5
Korea, Rep. 10.2 9.9 10.0 10.7 10.9
Sri Lanka 10.3 9.9 9.8 10.5 9.8
Switzerland 10.2 10.1 10.3 10.7 10.9
Venezuela, RB 11.1 10.5 10.5 9.6 8.4
St. Kitts and Nevis 10.9 10.5 9.9 10.0 10.0
Ghana 11.1 10.6 9.7 9.8 9.3
Guinea-Bissau 13.2 10.7 9.6 11.2 10.3
Chile 12.6 10.9 10.5 10.3 10.0
Mozambique 13.2 11.1 11.9 13.1 13.5
Bolivia 9.4 11.1 11.4 11.9 11.8
Niger 11.3 11.2 15.5 15.7 16.8
Thailand 12.8 11.3 10.0 9.5 9.4
Singapore 12.7 11.5 9.9 9.7 9.5
Mauritius 10.5 11.7 12.7 12.2 13.6
Guinea 11.4 11.9 11.2 11.7 11.0
Bahamas, The 12.1 12.0 13.6 12.9
Cameroon 11.3 12.2 10.7 10.8 12.8
Brazil 10.7 12.2 12.6 15.5 19.3
Costa Rica 13.0 12.2 12.5 13.6 14.7
India 12.1 12.5 12.2 12.2 11.9
Peru 12.8 12.5 8.7 8.8 7.5
Sudan 13.8 12.8 7.0 7.0 5.8
Uruguay 14.3 13.2 12.2 12.3 12.1
Portugal 13.4 13.3 13.8 14.5 15.3
Georgia 13.1 13.4 13.6 11.8 10.0
Rwanda 11.9 13.5 13.5 12.7 10.1
Pakistan 12.8 13.5 15.5 16.8 15.1
El Salvador 14.2 13.7 12.7 12.2 9.9
Jamaica 14.3 13.8 14.4 12.9 13.0
China 14.7 13.9 13.1 13.8 14.1
Japan 13.9 13.9 13.5 13.4 13.3
Bhutan 18.6 14.0 12.6 19.6 14.9
Honduras 14.3 14.2 14.1 14.3 12.9
Egypt, Arab Rep. 16.5 14.3 13.9 12.6 11.3
Iran, Islamic Rep. 15.2 14.4 15.0 12.0 10.8
Puerto Rico 14.7 14.4 14.2 14.4 14.5
Malaysia 16.7 14.9 14.2 14.1 13.8
Equatorial Guinea 18.7 15.1 20.5 16.6 16.3
Ecuador 15.6 15.3 16.3 13.7 12.3
Spain 15.0 15.5 15.4 15.9 16.3
Benin 15.3 15.5 13.2 11.1 17.6
Luxembourg 14.9 15.7 14.9 14.6 14.9
Chad 13.9 15.8 12.7 15.0 10.0
United States 16.0 15.9 15.6 15.6 15.9
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 15.6 16.1 14.8 15.9 14.4
Cote d'Ivoire 15.1 16.3 17.1 18.3 16.8
Malta 16.1 16.5 16.0 16.5 16.2
Antigua and Barbuda 18.2 16.6 19.4 19.0 18.0
Cyprus 14.1 16.6 16.7 16.0 17.3
Tonga 15.8 16.7 16.3 17.4 19.1
Bulgaria 16.9 16.9 16.3 16.5 18.2
Tunisia 17.8 16.9 16.6 17.3 16.4
Mali 18.3 17.2 17.7 17.0 17.0
Fiji 17.3 17.4 14.4 17.3 17.5
Central African Republic 15.6 17.5 16.1 15.8 15.4
Senegal 17.6 17.5 18.1 17.8 18.4
New Zealand 17.7 17.5 17.6 17.8 18.4
Belize 20.5 17.9 16.6 15.2 12.9
Syrian Arab Republic 21.5 18.0 13.2 16.0 14.3
Togo 17.6 18.0 13.5 13.8 14.2
Austria 18.5 18.5 18.3 18.0 17.7
Kenya 18.3 18.6 18.4 18.1 18.6
Greece 18.3 18.6 16.4 17.4 17.5
Iceland 18.0 18.8 19.8 19.2 19.0
Italy 18.0 18.8 19.2 19.0 19.7
Australia 18.9 18.8 17.9 17.3 17.1
United Kingdom 19.8 19.1 18.3 17.9 18.1
Malawi 19.7 19.1 15.7 16.3 15.1
Morocco 18.1 19.1 18.1 17.8 16.8
St. Lucia 20.0 19.2 16.9 17.9 14.7
South Africa 18.8 19.2 18.5 19.2 19.7
Swaziland 20.1 19.4 17.5 17.4 14.3
Algeria 19.0 19.4 20.1 18.0 16.1
Ireland 20.9 19.7 18.0 16.7 17.2
Trinidad and Tobago 21.8 19.9 19.8 16.9 16.2
Burkina Faso 19.0 19.9 20.0 20.1 21.1
Dominica 20.5 20.0 19.3 20.9 20.5
Norway 19.0 20.0 19.9 20.0 20.3
Finland 20.0 20.3 19.6 19.5 20.9
Grenada 18.6 20.4 18.9 22.4 21.6
Germany 20.3 20.5 20.3 19.3 19.0
Congo, Rep. 25.0 20.6 21.0 19.5 19.6
Canada 21.9 21.2 21.1 21.4 22.6
Turkmenistan 21.3 21.6 22.5 23.0
Gambia, The 18.4 21.7 17.8 14.4 13.7
France 22.1 21.9 21.5 20.9 21.0
Panama 20.5 22.0 20.9 19.3 18.1
Kuwait 27.0 22.0 26.3 25.4 38.7
Belgium 22.5 22.3 21.0 20.3 20.1
Papua New Guinea 23.0 22.4 20.9 24.5 24.8
Kyrgyz Republic 22.8 22.0 19.7 25.0
Netherlands 22.2 23.1 22.6 21.8 21.6
Zimbabwe 20.6 23.4 27.5 18.7 19.4
Denmark 23.0 24.2 24.6 24.3 24.0
Bahrain 27.2 24.4 24.4 24.6 24.2
Mauritania 23.6 24.4 24.3 25.3 25.9
Namibia 22.9 24.5 23.3 21.9 23.3
Gabon 25.8 24.6 19.8 14.2 13.4
Sweden 25.3 24.6 23.9 24.2 25.3
Jordan 25.3 25.7 25.7 25.5 24.0
Mongolia 26.2 26.3 25.7 23.2 24.4
Botswana 24.0 26.9 23.9 22.7 24.1
Comoros 27.6 27.3 27.1 27.6 24.5
Guyana 31.5 27.4 28.1 16.5 13.6
Oman 33.2 30.4 29.6 27.1 22.3
Lesotho 16.7 31.0 33.1 28.6 25.6
Cuba 32.1 32.0 31.8 31.7 31.0
Iraq 35.9 32.2 32.2 29.4 11.0
Israel 30.9 34.0 31.6 29.4 30.0
Nicaragua 35.4 34.2 32.2 26.7 43.5
Seychelles 38.8 34.4 31.8 33.3 27.7
Saudi Arabia 34.7 35.2 30.9 33.6 29.2
Vanuatu 37.2 35.8 34.2 30.3 29.4
Suriname 36.8 37.6 36.5 30.0 30.0
Angola 50.0 50.0 50.0 33.3 33.3
Kiribati 54.0 50.7 45.9 53.2 52.8
Somalia
Northern Mariana Islands
Serbia
Monaco
San Marino
Moldova
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Faroe Islands
Czech Republic 21.5
Palau
Liechtenstein
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Belarus 23.8
Yemen, Rep. 15.5
Slovenia
Lithuania
South Sudan
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Andorra
Armenia 18.3
Sao Tome and Principe
Marshall Islands
Maldives
Cayman Islands
French Polynesia
Greenland
Djibouti 31.5
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Slovak Republic 22.4
Brunei Darussalam 24.3 22.0
Solomon Islands
New Caledonia 40.7 9.4
Haiti
Montenegro
Guam
Myanmar
Curacao
Tuvalu
St. Martin (French part)
Ukraine 17.3 16.5
Croatia
Cambodia
Macedonia, FYR 19.0
Bermuda
Ethiopia
Hungary
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Tanzania 17.8
Poland 21.7
Timor-Leste
Estonia
Eritrea
Kazakhstan
Qatar
American Samoa
Romania 13.3
Turks and Caicos Islands
Russian Federation 20.1 20.8
Isle of Man
Aruba
United Arab Emirates
Samoa
Cabo Verde
Paraguay
Azerbaijan 17.6
Liberia 22.0
Libya 24.4
Vietnam 7.8 12.3
Latvia
West Bank and Gaza
Afghanistan
Zambia
Lebanon 18.1 24.6

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