Country name 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
Uzbekistan 1.4 2.2 3.4
Bangladesh 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3
Argentina 4.7 4.3 4.5
Dominican Republic 7.5 7.1 5.8 5.6 5.6
Hong Kong SAR, China 7.0 7.0 6.3 6.1 6.3
Nigeria 12.7 12.6 7.2 7.6 5.4
Macao SAR, China 7.2 7.5 7.3 8.0 9.1
Turkey 7.5 7.6 7.8 7.6 9.3
Guatemala 7.0 7.1 7.9 8.0 7.9
Uganda 14.5 9.0 8.0 8.1 7.0
Lao PDR 8.7 8.6 8.3 10.9
Philippines 7.6 8.0 8.4 9.0 9.5
Colombia 10.7 9.8 8.7 8.6 9.2
Tajikistan 8.1 8.5 8.7 8.0 8.7
Mexico 9.2 9.1 8.8 8.4 8.3
Nepal 9.4 9.1 9.1 9.0 10.0
Madagascar 9.8 8.8 9.1 8.1 8.8
Sierra Leone 7.9 6.3 9.4 6.7 7.3
Indonesia 11.2 11.0 9.4 8.5 8.7
Albania 9.3 9.3 9.6 9.5 8.8
Burundi 7.8 9.8 9.7 10.7 10.2
Latvia 9.0 9.3 9.8 9.6 9.1
Congo, Dem. Rep. 7.7 8.0 9.9 12.7 10.1
Korea, Rep. 10.4 10.2 9.9 10.0 10.7
Sri Lanka 10.2 10.3 9.9 9.8 10.5
Switzerland 10.0 10.2 10.1 10.3 10.7
Venezuela, RB 10.8 11.1 10.5 10.5 9.6
Ghana 9.4 11.1 10.6 9.7 9.8
Guinea-Bissau 17.9 13.2 10.7 9.6 11.2
Chile 13.4 12.6 10.9 10.5 10.3
Mozambique 12.9 13.2 11.1 11.9 13.1
Bolivia 10.6 9.4 11.1 11.4 11.9
Niger 10.8 11.3 11.2 15.5 15.7
Thailand 13.5 12.8 11.3 10.0 9.5
Singapore 13.4 12.7 11.5 9.9 9.7
Mauritius 11.5 10.5 11.7 12.7 12.2
Guinea 11.4 11.9 11.2 11.7
Bahamas, The 12.5 12.1 12.0 13.6
Cameroon 9.0 11.3 12.2 10.7 10.8
Brazil 9.9 10.7 12.2 12.6 15.5
Costa Rica 13.5 13.0 12.2 12.5 13.6
India 11.5 12.1 12.5 12.2 12.2
Peru 12.0 12.8 12.5 8.7 8.8
Sudan 12.3 13.8 12.8 7.0 7.0
Uruguay 14.4 14.3 13.2 12.2 12.3
Portugal 13.6 13.4 13.3 13.8 14.5
Georgia 12.8 13.1 13.4 13.6 11.8
Rwanda 11.3 11.9 13.5 13.5 12.7
Ethiopia 13.1 13.6 13.5 15.7 17.0
Pakistan 12.1 12.8 13.5 15.5 16.8
El Salvador 15.5 14.2 13.7 12.7 12.2
Jamaica 14.9 14.3 13.8 14.4 12.9
China 14.4 14.8 13.9 13.1 13.8
Japan 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.5 13.4
Bhutan 23.7 18.6 14.0 12.6 19.6
Mali 11.4 14.9 14.2 13.7 13.6
Honduras 13.1 14.3 14.2 14.1 14.3
Egypt, Arab Rep. 17.2 16.5 14.3 13.9 12.6
Puerto Rico 15.1 14.7 14.4 14.2 14.4
Malaysia 14.8 16.4 14.9 14.2 14.1
Equatorial Guinea 16.9 18.7 15.1 20.5 16.6
Ecuador 14.8 15.6 15.3 16.3 13.7
Iran, Islamic Rep. 17.2 16.4 15.4 16.3 13.1
Spain 15.2 15.0 15.5 15.4 15.9
Benin 15.4 15.3 15.5 13.2 11.1
Luxembourg 15.2 14.9 15.8 15.0 14.6
Chad 11.7 13.9 15.8 12.7 15.0
United States 15.8 16.0 15.9 15.6 15.6
Cote d'Ivoire 14.1 15.1 16.3 17.1 18.3
Malta 16.4 16.1 16.5 16.0 16.5
Antigua and Barbuda 18.1 18.2 16.6 19.4 19.0
Cyprus 14.1 14.1 16.6 16.7 16.0
Tonga 16.0 15.8 16.7 16.3 17.4
Bulgaria 16.6 16.9 16.9 16.3 16.5
Tunisia 17.0 17.8 16.9 16.6 17.3
Barbados 18.9 17.7 17.1 17.3 17.9
Fiji 19.1 17.3 17.4 14.4 17.3
Central African Republic 15.1 15.6 17.5 16.1 15.8
Senegal 17.4 17.6 17.5 18.1 17.8
Belize 21.1 20.5 17.9 16.6 15.2
Syrian Arab Republic 23.8 21.5 18.0 13.2 16.0
Togo 13.1 17.6 18.0 13.5 13.8
New Zealand 18.3 18.5 18.1 18.0 18.1
Greece 18.9 17.9 18.3 16.1 17.1
Austria 18.3 18.5 18.5 18.3 18.0
Kenya 17.5 18.3 18.6 18.4 18.1
Italy 18.3 18.0 18.8 19.2 19.0
Australia 18.8 18.9 18.8 18.0 17.3
Iceland 17.6 18.0 18.9 19.9 19.3
Malawi 17.7 19.7 19.1 15.7 16.3
Morocco 18.2 18.1 19.1 18.1 17.8
St. Lucia 17.3 20.0 19.2 16.9 17.9
South Africa 18.2 18.8 19.2 18.5 19.2
United Kingdom 19.8 19.8 19.3 18.6 18.4
St. Kitts and Nevis 22.5 19.8 19.4 17.6 17.4
Swaziland 20.8 20.1 19.4 17.5 17.4
Algeria 16.7 19.0 19.4 20.1 18.0
Ireland 20.7 20.9 19.8 18.0 16.7
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 19.7 19.6 19.9 18.1 19.2
Burkina Faso 17.3 19.0 19.9 20.0 20.1
Dominica 22.5 20.5 20.0 19.3 20.9
Finland 19.7 20.0 20.3 19.6 19.5
Grenada 19.5 18.6 20.4 18.9 22.4
Zambia 23.9 26.9 20.4 14.9 13.7
Congo, Rep. 16.5 25.0 20.6 21.0 19.5
Germany 20.5 20.4 20.6 20.3 19.4
Norway 18.5 19.6 20.7 20.9 20.7
Canada 21.8 21.9 21.2 21.1 21.4
Turkmenistan 21.3 21.6 22.5
Trinidad and Tobago 22.7 23.4 21.6 15.7 13.3
Gambia, The 15.9 18.4 21.7 17.8 14.4
France 22.4 22.1 21.9 21.5 20.9
Panama 19.6 20.5 22.0 20.9 19.3
Kuwait 22.4 27.0 22.0 26.3 25.4
Belgium 22.7 22.6 22.4 21.0 20.3
Papua New Guinea 23.5 23.0 22.4 20.9 24.5
Kyrgyz Republic 22.8 22.0 19.7
Netherlands 22.4 22.3 23.2 22.6 21.9
Zimbabwe 20.2 20.6 23.4 27.5 18.7
Denmark 24.2 23.0 24.2 24.6 24.3
Bahrain 22.8 27.2 24.4 24.4 24.6
Mauritania 29.1 23.6 24.4 24.3 25.3
Namibia 21.9 22.9 24.5 23.3 21.9
Gabon 20.4 25.8 24.6 19.8 14.2
Sweden 25.6 25.3 24.6 23.9 24.2
Jordan 27.0 25.3 25.7 25.7 25.5
Mongolia 23.2 26.2 26.3 25.7 23.2
Botswana 23.0 24.0 26.9 23.9 22.7
Comoros 27.5 27.6 27.3 27.1 27.6
Guyana 18.1 31.5 27.4 28.1 16.5
Angola 32.4 37.2 27.9 31.5 28.6
Oman 27.1 33.2 30.4 29.6 27.1
Lesotho 17.1 16.7 31.0 33.1 28.6
Cuba 31.1 32.1 32.0 31.8 31.7
Israel 36.3 30.9 34.0 31.6 29.4
Nicaragua 35.7 35.4 34.2 32.2 26.7
Seychelles 34.6 38.8 34.4 31.8 33.3
Saudi Arabia 31.9 34.7 35.2 30.9 33.6
Vanuatu 34.4 37.2 35.8 34.2 30.3
Suriname 33.7 36.8 37.6 36.5 30.0
Kiribati 54.5 54.0 50.7 45.9 53.2
Armenia
Northern Mariana Islands
Faeroe Islands
Tuvalu
Timor-Leste
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Liberia 27.0 22.0
New Caledonia 37.8 40.7
Cayman Islands
Estonia
Hungary
Palau
Greenland
Aruba
Moldova
Myanmar
St. Martin (French part)
Paraguay
Eritrea
Marshall Islands
Middle East (developing only)
Tanzania
Poland
Cabo Verde
Liechtenstein
Maldives
Djibouti
Ukraine 17.3
Libya
Bermuda
Qatar
Romania
South Sudan
Russian Federation 20.1
Croatia
Lithuania
French Polynesia
Samoa
Korea, Dem. Rep.
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Haiti
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Guam
Yemen, Rep.
Andorra
Macedonia, FYR
Kazakhstan
Montenegro
Cambodia
Monaco
Azerbaijan
Curacao
American Samoa
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Turks and Caicos Islands
Slovak Republic
Iraq
Slovenia
United Arab Emirates
Solomon Islands
Brunei Darussalam 24.3
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Afghanistan
Somalia
Belarus
Vietnam 7.8
Czech Republic
West Bank and Gaza
Serbia
Isle of Man
Lebanon 18.1

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