Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Uzbekistan 1.4 2.2 3.4 25.4
Bangladesh 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.1
Argentina 4.7 4.3 4.5 3.1
Dominican Republic 7.1 5.8 5.6 5.6 4.3
Hong Kong SAR, China 7.0 6.3 6.1 6.3 6.8
Sierra Leone 6.3 9.4 6.7 7.3 7.8
Sudan 13.8 12.8 7.0 7.0 5.8
Turkey 7.6 7.8 7.6 9.3 11.0
Nigeria 12.6 7.2 7.6 5.4 5.0
Guatemala 7.1 7.9 8.0 7.9 6.6
Macao SAR, China 7.5 7.3 8.0 9.1 9.9
Tajikistan 8.5 8.7 8.0 8.7 8.7
Uganda 9.0 8.0 8.1 7.0 7.5
Madagascar 8.8 9.1 8.1 8.8 8.0
Mexico 9.1 8.8 8.4 8.3 8.4
Indonesia 11.0 9.4 8.5 8.7 8.8
Colombia 9.8 8.7 8.6 9.2 9.4
Peru 12.8 12.5 8.7 8.8 7.5
Nepal 9.1 9.1 9.0 10.0 8.7
Philippines 8.0 8.4 9.0 9.5 10.1
Albania 9.3 9.6 9.5 8.8 18.5
Guinea-Bissau 13.2 10.7 9.6 11.2 10.3
Ghana 11.1 10.6 9.7 9.8 9.3
Barbados 10.0 9.7 9.8 10.1 11.4
Sri Lanka 10.3 9.9 9.8 10.5 9.8
Singapore 12.7 11.5 9.9 9.7 9.5
St. Kitts and Nevis 10.9 10.5 9.9 10.0 10.0
Korea, Rep. 10.2 9.9 10.0 10.7 10.9
Thailand 12.8 11.3 10.0 9.5 9.4
Switzerland 10.2 10.1 10.3 10.7 10.9
Chile 12.6 10.9 10.5 10.3 10.0
Venezuela, RB 11.1 10.5 10.5 9.6 8.4
Burundi 9.8 9.7 10.7 10.2 10.8
Cameroon 11.3 12.2 10.7 10.8 12.8
Lao PDR 8.6 8.3 10.9
Guinea 11.4 11.9 11.2 11.7 11.0
Bolivia 9.4 11.1 11.4 11.9 11.8
Mozambique 13.2 11.1 11.9 13.1 13.5
Uruguay 14.3 13.2 12.2 12.3 12.1
India 12.1 12.5 12.2 12.2 11.9
Costa Rica 13.0 12.2 12.5 13.6 14.7
Brazil 10.7 12.2 12.6 15.5 19.3
Bhutan 18.6 14.0 12.6 19.6 14.9
Mauritius 10.5 11.7 12.7 12.2 13.6
Chad 13.9 15.8 12.7 15.0 10.0
El Salvador 14.2 13.7 12.7 12.2 9.9
Congo, Dem. Rep. 8.0 9.9 12.7 10.1 11.5
China 14.7 13.9 13.1 13.8 14.1
Syrian Arab Republic 21.5 18.0 13.2 16.0 14.3
Benin 15.3 15.5 13.2 11.1 17.6
Togo 17.6 18.0 13.5 13.8 14.2
Rwanda 11.9 13.5 13.5 12.7 10.1
Japan 13.9 13.9 13.5 13.4 13.3
Georgia 13.1 13.4 13.6 11.8 10.0
Portugal 13.4 13.3 13.8 14.5 15.3
Egypt, Arab Rep. 16.5 14.3 13.9 12.6 11.3
Honduras 14.3 14.2 14.1 14.3 12.9
Puerto Rico 14.7 14.4 14.2 14.4 14.5
Malaysia 16.7 14.9 14.2 14.1 13.8
Jamaica 14.3 13.8 14.4 12.9 13.0
Fiji 17.3 17.4 14.4 17.3 17.5
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 15.6 16.1 14.8 15.9 14.4
Zambia 26.9 20.4 14.9 13.7 19.0
Luxembourg 14.9 15.7 14.9 14.6 14.9
Iran, Islamic Rep. 15.2 14.4 15.0 12.0 10.8
Spain 15.0 15.5 15.4 15.9 16.3
Niger 11.3 11.2 15.5 15.7 16.8
Pakistan 12.8 13.5 15.5 16.8 15.1
United States 16.0 15.9 15.6 15.6 15.9
Malawi 19.7 19.1 15.7 16.3 15.1
Malta 16.1 16.5 16.0 16.5 16.2
Central African Republic 15.6 17.5 16.1 15.8 15.4
Ecuador 15.6 15.3 16.3 13.7 12.3
Tonga 15.8 16.7 16.3 17.4 19.1
Bulgaria 16.9 16.9 16.3 16.5 18.2
Greece 18.3 18.6 16.4 17.4 17.5
Belize 20.5 17.9 16.6 15.2 12.9
Tunisia 17.8 16.9 16.6 17.3 16.4
Cyprus 14.1 16.6 16.7 16.0 17.3
St. Lucia 20.0 19.2 16.9 17.9 14.7
Cote d'Ivoire 15.1 16.3 17.1 18.3 16.8
Swaziland 20.1 19.4 17.5 17.4 14.3
New Zealand 17.7 17.5 17.6 17.8 18.4
Mali 18.3 17.2 17.7 17.0 17.0
Gambia, The 18.4 21.7 17.8 14.4 13.7
Australia 18.9 18.8 17.9 17.3 17.1
Ireland 20.9 19.7 18.0 16.7 17.2
Morocco 18.1 19.1 18.1 17.8 16.8
Senegal 17.6 17.5 18.1 17.8 18.4
Austria 18.5 18.5 18.3 18.0 17.7
United Kingdom 19.8 19.1 18.3 17.9 18.1
Kenya 18.3 18.6 18.4 18.1 18.6
South Africa 18.8 19.2 18.5 19.2 19.7
Grenada 18.6 20.4 18.9 22.4 21.6
Italy 18.0 18.8 19.2 19.0 19.7
Dominica 20.5 20.0 19.3 20.9 20.5
Antigua and Barbuda 18.2 16.6 19.4 19.0 18.0
Finland 20.0 20.3 19.6 19.5 20.9
Gabon 25.8 24.6 19.8 14.2 13.4
Iceland 18.0 18.8 19.8 19.2 19.0
Trinidad and Tobago 21.8 19.9 19.8 16.9 16.2
Norway 19.0 20.0 19.9 20.0 20.3
Burkina Faso 19.0 19.9 20.0 20.1 21.1
Algeria 19.0 19.4 20.1 18.0 16.1
Germany 20.3 20.5 20.3 19.3 19.0
Equatorial Guinea 18.7 15.1 20.5 16.6 16.3
Papua New Guinea 23.0 22.4 20.9 24.5 24.8
Panama 20.5 22.0 20.9 19.3 18.1
Belgium 22.5 22.3 21.0 20.3 20.1
Congo, Rep. 25.0 20.6 21.0 19.5 19.6
Canada 21.9 21.2 21.1 21.4 22.6
France 22.1 21.9 21.5 20.9 21.0
Turkmenistan 21.3 21.6 22.5 23.0
Kyrgyz Republic 22.8 22.0 19.7 25.0
Netherlands 22.2 23.1 22.6 21.8 21.6
Namibia 22.9 24.5 23.3 21.9 23.3
Botswana 24.0 26.9 23.9 22.7 24.1
Sweden 25.3 24.6 23.9 24.2 25.3
Mauritania 23.6 24.4 24.3 25.3 25.9
Bahrain 27.2 24.4 24.4 24.6 24.2
Denmark 23.0 24.2 24.6 24.3 24.0
Jordan 25.3 25.7 25.7 25.5 24.0
Mongolia 26.2 26.3 25.7 23.2 24.4
Kuwait 27.0 22.0 26.3 25.4 38.7
Comoros 27.6 27.3 27.1 27.6 24.5
Zimbabwe 20.6 23.4 27.5 18.7 19.4
Guyana 31.5 27.4 28.1 16.5 13.6
Oman 33.2 30.4 29.6 27.1 22.3
Saudi Arabia 34.7 35.2 30.9 33.6 29.2
Israel 30.9 34.0 31.6 29.4 30.0
Cuba 32.1 32.0 31.8 31.7 31.0
Seychelles 38.8 34.4 31.8 33.3 27.7
Nicaragua 35.4 34.2 32.2 26.7 43.5
Iraq 35.9 32.2 32.2 29.4 11.0
Lesotho 16.7 31.0 33.1 28.6 25.6
Vanuatu 37.2 35.8 34.2 30.3 29.4
Suriname 36.8 37.6 36.5 30.0 30.0
Kiribati 54.0 50.7 45.9 53.2 52.8
Angola 50.0 50.0 50.0 33.3 33.3
Guam
Northern Mariana Islands
Liberia 22.0
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
South Sudan
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Myanmar
Palau
Cayman Islands
Armenia 18.3
Somalia
Cabo Verde
Azerbaijan 17.6
West Bank and Gaza
Greenland
Tuvalu
New Caledonia 40.7 9.4
Kazakhstan
Eritrea
Paraguay
Macedonia, FYR 19.0
Montenegro
Belarus 23.8
Ukraine 17.3 16.5
Vietnam 7.8 12.3
Marshall Islands
Poland 21.7
Monaco
Libya 24.4
Isle of Man
Haiti
Qatar
Bermuda
Romania 13.3
Brunei Darussalam 24.3 22.0
Russian Federation 20.1 20.8
St. Martin (French part)
Faeroe Islands
French Polynesia
Aruba
Samoa
Ethiopia
San Marino
Estonia
Sao Tome and Principe
Tanzania 17.8
Moldova
Timor-Leste
Hungary
Djibouti 31.5
Curacao
Czech Republic 21.5
Serbia
Maldives
Turks and Caicos Islands
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Andorra
Bahamas, The 12.1 12.0 13.6 12.9
United Arab Emirates
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Croatia
Slovak Republic 22.4
American Samoa
Slovenia
Cambodia
Solomon Islands
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Latvia
Yemen, Rep. 15.5
Afghanistan
Lebanon 18.1 24.6

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