Country name 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
Argentina 3.1 3.3 3.0 13.5 13.2
Dominican Republic 4.3 3.2 3.8 4.4 4.7
Bangladesh 4.1 4.1 4.5 5.0 4.9
Vietnam 12.3 8.1 5.8 7.3 8.3
Nigeria 5.0 4.8 6.0 6.5 17.9
Guatemala 6.6 5.4 6.4 6.4 5.6
Haiti 7.3 7.1 6.2 10.8
Sudan 5.8 8.7 7.3 5.6 4.8
Hong Kong SAR, China 6.8 7.1 7.6 7.5 7.5
Nepal 8.7 9.0 7.8 8.5 8.0
Paraguay 6.6 8.0 8.7 8.9
Peru 7.5 7.7 8.0 8.1 9.0
Madagascar 8.0 8.8 8.2 7.9 6.9
Sierra Leone 7.8 9.7 8.5 10.1 10.7
Macao SAR, China 9.9 10.5 8.5 8.5 8.9
Guinea 11.0 10.0 8.6 8.3 7.9
Indonesia 8.8 8.3 8.8 9.0 8.1
Singapore 9.5 9.2 8.8 9.0 8.1
Guinea-Bissau 10.3 10.6 9.0 7.1 7.1
Venezuela, RB 8.4 9.7 9.2 8.5 7.2
Chad 10.0 8.9 9.2 10.0 8.1
Ethiopia 16.8 14.1 9.2 9.3 11.4
El Salvador 9.9 9.9 9.4 8.6 8.4
Georgia 10.0 9.4 9.4 5.9 9.8
Colombia 9.4 9.2 9.5 10.1 14.7
Sri Lanka 9.8 9.8 9.6 9.2 9.7
Philippines 10.1 9.9 9.7 10.1 10.8
Uganda 7.5 8.8 9.7 11.2 11.7
Thailand 9.4 9.2 9.9 10.0 9.8
Mexico 8.4 9.1 9.9 13.0 12.5
Ecuador 12.3 11.3 9.9 10.6 11.0
Chile 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.5 10.4
Egypt, Arab Rep. 11.3 11.2 10.4 10.3 10.3
Iran, Islamic Rep. 12.1 11.7 11.0 15.5 16.1
Korea, Rep. 10.9 10.8 11.2 10.9 10.6
India 11.9 11.6 11.5 11.6 11.0
Honduras 12.9 10.8 11.5 10.6 9.6
Uruguay 12.1 12.0 11.6 12.2 11.9
Switzerland 10.9 11.3 11.7 11.5 11.5
Mozambique 13.5 9.6 11.8 11.5 13.0
Ghana 9.3 9.5 12.1 14.4 13.7
Barbados 14.1 13.4 12.2 12.6 12.1
Togo 14.2 17.5 12.4 16.1 13.2
Costa Rica 14.7 13.4 12.4 13.2 13.8
Trinidad and Tobago 11.9 12.6 12.6 12.5 12.0
Mauritania 25.9 16.5 12.7 12.0 11.6
Cameroon 12.8 13.3 12.8 12.4 9.4
Bolivia 11.8 12.1 12.9 13.4 13.6
Pakistan 15.1 14.3 12.9 13.1 12.1
Turkey 11.0 12.4 12.9 12.9 11.7
Malaysia 13.8 13.7 13.0 12.6 12.3
Mali 13.8 13.5 13.2 12.8 11.3
Mauritius 13.6 13.6 13.3 14.0 14.6
Swaziland 14.3 14.9 13.4 17.6 17.3
Belize 12.9 13.0 13.5 14.8 15.3
Bahamas, The 12.9 14.2 13.7 12.9 14.8
Japan 13.3 13.4 13.8 14.3 14.7
Russian Federation 20.8 16.5 13.9 20.0 19.1
Puerto Rico 14.5 14.4 13.9 13.8 13.5
Malawi 15.1 12.0 14.1 13.0 31.6
Gambia, The 13.7 13.1 14.2 14.5 11.4
Romania 13.3 15.2 14.3 12.3 13.8
Syrian Arab Republic 14.3 15.3 14.4 13.6 13.4
Rwanda 10.1 12.1 14.5 14.3 11.2
St. Lucia 14.7 14.6 14.6 14.3 14.3
Lebanon 24.6 19.2 14.8 14.0 12.6
Zambia 19.0 31.8 15.0 18.4
Luxembourg 14.9 14.5 15.0 15.0 14.5
Gabon 13.4 14.3 15.5 15.3 12.0
China 14.1 15.4 15.5 15.4 15.3
Greece 17.1 16.2 15.6 16.3 15.7
Belarus 23.8 21.2 15.7 18.5 20.5
Kenya 18.6 16.8 15.7 14.5 15.2
Benin 17.6 16.2 15.8 15.3 15.6
Mongolia 24.4 21.0 15.8 19.4 25.2
Panama 18.1 17.5 15.9 15.1 14.8
Tunisia 16.4 16.6 16.0 16.3 16.3
Algeria 16.1 14.7 16.0 17.3 17.9
United States 15.9 16.3 16.0 15.6 15.2
St. Kitts and Nevis 18.0 17.6 16.7 17.2 18.6
Guyana 13.6 15.4 17.0 15.6 15.5
Portugal 15.3 17.0 17.0 17.6 17.6
Brazil 19.3 17.9 17.1 17.7 15.8
Central African Republic 15.4 16.6 17.1 15.3 16.5
Senegal 18.4 17.4 17.3 16.2 14.5
Malta 16.2 16.8 17.3 18.6 18.9
Morocco 16.8 16.4 17.4 18.3 17.4
Cote d'Ivoire 16.8 16.4 17.4 15.5 12.0
Yemen, Rep. 15.5 16.7 17.5 17.6 17.5
Niger 16.8 14.8 17.5 15.8 16.0
Ukraine 16.5 17.4 17.6 16.0 19.4
Azerbaijan 17.6 19.4 17.7 30.1 23.5
Equatorial Guinea 16.3 16.7 17.8 24.9 14.9
Spain 16.3 17.0 17.8 18.4 17.8
Fiji 17.5 17.5 18.0 18.5 16.4
French Polynesia 19.1 18.1 18.4 19.1
Kazakhstan 18.2 13.9 10.7
Moldova 15.1 18.2 15.9 22.9
Austria 17.7 17.9 18.3 19.1 19.2
Antigua and Barbuda 18.0 17.5 18.3 18.7 19.1
Armenia 18.3 18.5 18.5 17.2 11.3
Ireland 17.2 18.2 18.6 18.4 18.2
Bhutan 14.9 17.9 18.7 16.4 14.9
Grenada 21.6 21.0 18.8 18.3 17.9
New Zealand 18.4 18.7 18.9 17.7 16.8
Australia 17.1 18.1 18.9 18.8 18.2
Tonga 19.1 20.4 18.9 17.7 16.0
Cyprus 17.3 18.5 19.0 16.9 16.7
Germany 19.0 18.6 19.1 19.2 19.1
Burundi 10.8 10.8 19.2 20.5 17.4
United Kingdom 18.0 18.9 19.3 18.6 18.3
Macedonia, FYR 19.0 21.7 19.5 21.1 19.0
Italy 19.7 19.7 19.6 19.4 18.7
Tanzania 17.8 18.9 19.6 19.4 17.1
Nicaragua 43.5 20.6 19.7 17.6 7.5
Albania 18.5 22.1 19.7 14.1 13.9
Dominica 20.5 21.0 19.9 20.7 20.2
Czech Republic 21.5 21.2 20.2 20.6 20.8
South Africa 19.7 19.8 20.2 19.6 19.8
Bulgaria 18.2 19.0 20.3 18.9 17.2
Iceland 19.1 19.8 20.4 20.8 20.7
Comoros 24.5 25.1 20.6 19.9 23.5
Belgium 20.1 20.8 20.9 21.2 21.0
Uzbekistan 25.4 20.8 21.2 24.5 21.2
Kyrgyz Republic 25.0 21.8 21.4 20.3 18.9
Congo, Dem. Rep. 20.0 21.5 15.4 4.4
Burkina Faso 21.1 21.7 21.7 21.3 26.1
Eritrea 21.8 31.2 30.2
Jordan 24.0 25.1 21.9 22.1 22.6
Norway 20.3 21.0 22.0 22.0 21.6
France 21.0 21.4 22.0 23.1 22.9
Netherlands 21.7 21.9 22.4 22.7 22.5
Brunei Darussalam 22.0 22.6 23.3 25.8 27.0
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 17.5 20.5 23.8 20.0 21.1
Papua New Guinea 24.8 23.6 23.8 24.6 18.6
Bahrain 24.2 23.4 23.9 22.3 21.0
Poland 21.7 25.3 24.0 22.6 19.5
Denmark 24.0 24.1 24.1 25.2 24.3
Zimbabwe 19.4 16.1 24.2 14.9 16.7
Finland 20.9 23.9 24.3 23.3 22.4
Canada 22.6 24.0 24.4 23.8 22.6
Oman 22.3 25.1 24.4 25.4 24.9
Hungary 25.0 25.9 27.8 25.6
Slovak Republic 22.4 21.1 25.9 24.0 20.5
Botswana 24.1 24.2 26.4 28.0 28.6
Namibia 23.3 25.2 26.5 26.0 23.6
Vanuatu 29.4 26.5 26.7 27.6 26.7
Congo, Rep. 19.6 27.7 26.9 27.7 21.8
Sweden 25.3 26.1 27.2 27.5 26.5
Tajikistan 8.7 5.9 27.2 21.9 19.7
Israel 30.0 29.7 28.3 28.5 27.9
Libya 24.4 26.5 28.9 22.8 22.6
Saudi Arabia 29.2 34.4 29.9 26.5 24.4
Seychelles 27.7 28.2 30.4 29.5 29.3
Lesotho 25.6 29.9 30.9 31.5 33.1
Suriname 30.0 37.3 33.2 27.8 25.6
Cuba 31.0 33.3 34.8 35.4 27.3
Kiribati 52.8 37.8 37.0
Djibouti 31.5 31.5 40.2
Angola 33.3 50.0 42.3 41.6 40.1
Kuwait 38.7 76.2 55.5 35.9 33.9
Tuvalu
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Samoa
Faeroe Islands
Marshall Islands
Estonia
Serbia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Turkmenistan 23.0 22.8 10.8 8.5
Bermuda
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Monaco
Palau
Montenegro
Cayman Islands
St. Martin (French part)
Qatar 34.5
Liberia
Lao PDR
Middle East (developing only)
Guam
Maldives
Aruba 19.8
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Latvia
Cambodia 4.5 6.9
Timor-Leste
Slovenia
Croatia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
Andorra
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Turks and Caicos Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
American Samoa
Myanmar
United Arab Emirates
Jamaica 13.0 11.6 11.4 10.1
Iraq
Lithuania
Greenland
Cabo Verde
Liechtenstein
Afghanistan
South Sudan
West Bank and Gaza 18.1
New Caledonia 9.4
Isle of Man
Curacao

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