Country name 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
Dominican Republic 4.3 3.2 3.8 4.4 4.7
Cambodia 4.5 6.9
Bangladesh 4.1 4.1 4.5 5.0 4.9
Sudan 5.8 8.7 7.3 5.6 4.8
Georgia 10.0 9.4 9.4 5.9 9.8
Haiti 7.3 7.1 6.2 10.8
Guatemala 6.6 5.4 6.4 6.4 5.6
Nigeria 5.0 4.8 6.0 6.5 17.9
Guinea-Bissau 10.3 10.6 9.0 7.1 7.1
Vietnam 12.3 8.1 5.8 7.3 8.3
Hong Kong SAR, China 6.8 7.1 7.6 7.5 7.5
Madagascar 8.0 8.8 8.2 7.9 6.9
Peru 7.5 7.7 8.0 8.1 9.0
Guinea 11.0 10.0 8.6 8.3 7.9
Nepal 8.7 9.0 7.8 8.5 8.0
Macao SAR, China 9.9 10.5 8.5 8.5 8.9
Venezuela, RB 8.4 9.7 9.2 8.5 7.2
El Salvador 9.9 9.9 9.4 8.6 8.4
Paraguay 6.6 8.0 8.7 8.9
Singapore 9.5 9.2 8.8 9.0 8.1
Indonesia 8.8 8.3 8.8 9.0 8.1
Sri Lanka 9.8 9.8 9.6 9.2 9.7
Ethiopia 16.8 14.1 9.2 9.3 11.4
Thailand 9.4 9.2 9.9 10.0 9.8
Chad 10.0 8.9 9.2 10.0 8.1
Colombia 9.4 9.2 9.5 10.1 14.7
Sierra Leone 7.8 9.7 8.5 10.1 10.7
Philippines 10.1 9.9 9.7 10.1 10.8
Egypt, Arab Rep. 11.3 11.2 10.4 10.3 10.3
Chile 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.5 10.4
Honduras 12.9 10.8 11.5 10.6 9.6
Ecuador 12.3 11.3 9.9 10.6 11.0
Turkmenistan 23.0 22.8 10.8 8.5
Korea, Rep. 10.9 10.8 11.2 10.9 10.6
Uganda 7.5 8.8 9.7 11.2 11.7
Jamaica 13.0 11.6 11.4 10.1
Mozambique 13.5 9.6 11.8 11.5 13.0
Switzerland 10.9 11.3 11.7 11.5 11.5
India 11.9 11.6 11.5 11.6 11.0
Mauritania 25.9 16.5 12.7 12.0 11.6
Uruguay 12.1 12.0 11.6 12.2 11.9
Romania 13.3 15.2 14.3 12.3 13.8
Cameroon 12.8 13.3 12.8 12.4 9.4
Trinidad and Tobago 11.9 12.6 12.6 12.5 12.0
Barbados 14.1 13.4 12.2 12.6 12.1
Malaysia 13.8 13.7 13.0 12.6 12.3
Mali 13.8 13.5 13.2 12.8 11.3
Bahamas, The 12.9 14.2 13.7 12.9 14.8
Turkey 11.0 12.4 12.9 12.9 11.7
Mexico 8.4 9.1 9.9 13.0 12.5
Malawi 15.1 12.0 14.1 13.0 31.6
Pakistan 15.1 14.3 12.9 13.1 12.1
Costa Rica 14.7 13.4 12.4 13.2 13.8
Bolivia 11.8 12.1 12.9 13.4 13.6
Argentina 3.1 3.3 3.0 13.5 13.2
Syrian Arab Republic 14.3 15.3 14.4 13.6 13.4
Puerto Rico 14.5 14.4 13.9 13.8 13.5
Kazakhstan 18.2 13.9 10.7
Mauritius 13.6 13.6 13.3 14.0 14.6
Lebanon 24.6 19.2 14.8 14.0 12.6
Albania 18.5 22.1 19.7 14.1 13.9
Rwanda 10.1 12.1 14.5 14.3 11.2
Japan 13.3 13.4 13.8 14.3 14.7
St. Lucia 14.7 14.6 14.6 14.3 14.3
Ghana 9.3 9.5 12.1 14.4 13.7
Kenya 18.6 16.8 15.7 14.5 15.2
Gambia, The 13.7 13.1 14.2 14.5 11.4
Belize 12.9 13.0 13.5 14.8 15.3
Zimbabwe 19.4 16.1 24.2 14.9 16.7
Luxembourg 14.9 14.5 15.0 15.0 14.5
Panama 18.1 17.5 15.9 15.1 14.8
Central African Republic 15.4 16.6 17.1 15.3 16.5
Benin 17.6 16.2 15.8 15.3 15.6
Gabon 13.4 14.3 15.5 15.3 12.0
Congo, Dem. Rep. 20.0 21.5 15.4 4.4
China 14.1 15.4 15.5 15.4 15.3
Cote d'Ivoire 16.8 16.4 17.4 15.5 12.0
Iran, Islamic Rep. 12.1 11.7 11.0 15.5 16.1
Guyana 13.6 15.4 17.0 15.6 15.5
United States 15.9 16.3 16.0 15.6 15.2
Niger 16.8 14.8 17.5 15.8 16.0
Moldova 15.1 18.2 15.9 22.9
Ukraine 16.5 17.4 17.6 16.0 19.4
Togo 14.2 17.5 12.4 16.1 13.2
Senegal 18.4 17.4 17.3 16.2 14.5
Tunisia 16.4 16.6 16.0 16.3 16.3
Greece 17.1 16.2 15.6 16.3 15.7
Bhutan 14.9 17.9 18.7 16.4 14.9
Cyprus 17.3 18.5 19.0 16.9 16.7
Armenia 18.3 18.5 18.5 17.2 11.3
St. Kitts and Nevis 18.0 17.6 16.7 17.2 18.6
Algeria 16.1 14.7 16.0 17.3 17.9
Portugal 15.3 17.0 17.0 17.6 17.6
Nicaragua 43.5 20.6 19.7 17.6 7.5
Swaziland 14.3 14.9 13.4 17.6 17.3
Yemen, Rep. 15.5 16.7 17.5 17.6 17.5
Brazil 19.3 17.9 17.1 17.7 15.8
Tonga 19.1 20.4 18.9 17.7 16.0
New Zealand 18.4 18.7 18.9 17.7 16.8
Grenada 21.6 21.0 18.8 18.3 17.9
Morocco 16.8 16.4 17.4 18.3 17.4
Spain 16.3 17.0 17.8 18.4 17.8
Ireland 17.2 18.2 18.6 18.4 18.2
Zambia 19.0 31.8 15.0 18.4
French Polynesia 19.1 18.1 18.4 19.1
Belarus 23.8 21.2 15.7 18.5 20.5
Fiji 17.5 17.5 18.0 18.5 16.4
Malta 16.2 16.8 17.3 18.6 18.9
United Kingdom 18.0 18.9 19.3 18.6 18.3
Antigua and Barbuda 18.0 17.5 18.3 18.7 19.1
Australia 17.1 18.1 18.9 18.8 18.2
Bulgaria 18.2 19.0 20.3 18.9 17.2
Austria 17.7 17.9 18.3 19.1 19.2
Germany 19.0 18.6 19.1 19.2 19.1
Tanzania 17.8 18.9 19.6 19.4 17.1
Mongolia 24.4 21.0 15.8 19.4 25.2
Italy 19.7 19.7 19.6 19.4 18.7
South Africa 19.7 19.8 20.2 19.6 19.8
Comoros 24.5 25.1 20.6 19.9 23.5
Russian Federation 20.8 16.5 13.9 20.0 19.1
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 17.5 20.5 23.8 20.0 21.1
Kyrgyz Republic 25.0 21.8 21.4 20.3 18.9
Burundi 10.8 10.8 19.2 20.5 17.4
Czech Republic 21.5 21.2 20.2 20.6 20.8
Dominica 20.5 21.0 19.9 20.7 20.2
Iceland 19.1 19.8 20.4 20.8 20.7
Macedonia, FYR 19.0 21.7 19.5 21.1 19.0
Belgium 20.1 20.8 20.9 21.2 21.0
Burkina Faso 21.1 21.7 21.7 21.3 26.1
Tajikistan 8.7 5.9 27.2 21.9 19.7
Norway 20.3 21.0 22.0 22.0 21.6
Jordan 24.0 25.1 21.9 22.1 22.6
Bahrain 24.2 23.4 23.9 22.3 21.0
Poland 21.7 25.3 24.0 22.6 19.5
Netherlands 21.7 21.9 22.4 22.7 22.5
Libya 24.4 26.5 28.9 22.8 22.6
France 21.0 21.4 22.0 23.1 22.9
Finland 20.9 23.9 24.3 23.3 22.4
Canada 22.6 24.0 24.4 23.8 22.6
Slovak Republic 22.4 21.1 25.9 24.0 20.5
Uzbekistan 25.4 20.8 21.2 24.5 21.2
Papua New Guinea 24.8 23.6 23.8 24.6 18.6
Equatorial Guinea 16.3 16.7 17.8 24.9 14.9
Denmark 24.0 24.1 24.1 25.2 24.3
Oman 22.3 25.1 24.4 25.4 24.9
Brunei Darussalam 22.0 22.6 23.3 25.8 27.0
Namibia 23.3 25.2 26.5 26.0 23.6
Saudi Arabia 29.2 34.4 29.9 26.5 24.4
Sweden 25.3 26.1 27.2 27.5 26.5
Vanuatu 29.4 26.5 26.7 27.6 26.7
Congo, Rep. 19.6 27.7 26.9 27.7 21.8
Suriname 30.0 37.3 33.2 27.8 25.6
Hungary 25.0 25.9 27.8 25.6
Botswana 24.1 24.2 26.4 28.0 28.6
Israel 30.0 29.7 28.3 28.5 27.9
Seychelles 27.7 28.2 30.4 29.5 29.3
Azerbaijan 17.6 19.4 17.7 30.1 23.5
Eritrea 21.8 31.2 30.2
Lesotho 25.6 29.9 30.9 31.5 33.1
Cuba 31.0 33.3 34.8 35.4 27.3
Kuwait 38.7 76.2 55.5 35.9 33.9
Angola 33.3 50.0 42.3 41.6 40.1
Liberia
Iraq
Serbia
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Turks and Caicos Islands
Bermuda
Sao Tome and Principe
San Marino
United Arab Emirates
Middle East (developing only)
Isle of Man
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Cayman Islands
Palau
Montenegro
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Faeroe Islands
American Samoa
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Myanmar
Monaco
Qatar 34.5
Northern Mariana Islands
Aruba 19.8
Lao PDR
Croatia
Samoa
Timor-Leste
Cabo Verde
Curacao
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Djibouti 31.5 31.5 40.2
St. Martin (French part)
Andorra
Kiribati 52.8 37.8 37.0
Tuvalu
Marshall Islands
Guam
Liechtenstein
Greenland
Lithuania
Maldives
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
Afghanistan
Latvia
West Bank and Gaza 18.1
South Sudan
Estonia
New Caledonia 9.4

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