Country name 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Bangladesh 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.7 4.6
Dominican Republic 4.6 4.8 6.5 6.8 7.2
Venezuela, RB 7.1 5.0 13.5 13.5 12.3
Guatemala 5.5 5.1 5.0 5.7 6.3
Sudan 5.5 5.6 5.4 6.2 6.5
Cambodia 5.8 5.7 5.5 4.8 4.9
Congo, Dem. Rep. 4.9 6.2 7.8 8.1 5.9
Mozambique 8.1 6.3 6.8 7.7 8.5
Guinea-Bissau 6.4 6.6 7.0 9.3 10.8
Nicaragua 7.5 7.3 6.9 7.1 8.2
Guinea 7.5 7.5 7.4 6.8 7.0
Indonesia 7.8 7.6 6.8 5.7 6.6
Georgia 10.9 7.7 10.2 11.1 10.6
Turkmenistan 11.9 7.8 13.2 16.2 11.9
Chad 7.3 7.9 6.5 5.6 6.9
Hong Kong SAR, China 8.0 8.1 8.0 9.0 9.6
Vietnam 8.2 8.4 8.1 7.6 6.8
Singapore 8.1 8.9 8.7 9.6 9.5
Haiti 7.3 8.9 7.9 7.4 7.3
Cameroon 8.7 9.2 9.1 9.1 9.5
Nepal 9.2 9.2 8.9 9.3 8.9
El Salvador 8.6 9.3 9.1 9.7 10.0
Honduras 9.3 9.5 8.8 10.1 11.3
Paraguay 8.9 9.6 10.2 10.5 10.3
Albania 13.6 9.7 10.8 9.8 9.2
Madagascar 6.7 9.8 7.8 7.8 7.2
Nigeria 12.1 10.0 13.0 14.0 7.0
Macao SAR, China 9.2 10.1 11.0 12.5 14.6
Mali 9.7 10.2 12.0 14.7 15.9
Thailand 9.9 10.2 10.1 11.1 11.5
Argentina 11.0 10.3 10.0 10.3 11.3
Egypt, Arab Rep. 10.5 10.4 11.3 11.3 11.6
Cote d'Ivoire 10.6 10.5 7.0 6.5 6.5
Sri Lanka 11.5 10.5 10.4 9.8 9.0
Peru 10.1 10.6 10.5 11.2 11.7
Ethiopia 10.8 10.6 10.9 15.3 20.4
Korea, Rep. 10.4 10.7 10.6 11.7 11.3
India 11.1 10.9 11.6 12.5 12.8
Sierra Leone 8.8 10.9 9.0 8.9 11.5
Ecuador 11.2 10.9 11.3 11.1 11.8
Chile 10.4 11.0 11.1 11.5 12.4
Mauritania 10.7 11.1 10.8 12.4 19.3
Malaysia 12.4 11.1 10.8 9.8 11.0
Armenia 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.1 11.9
Gabon 11.8 11.2 10.8 15.5 11.8
Gambia, The 11.6 11.4 11.3 10.0 10.3
Niger 13.9 11.5 14.1 13.7 16.0
Rwanda 10.3 11.5 9.6 10.0 13.9
Switzerland 11.4 11.5 11.2 10.9 10.8
Tanzania 11.5 11.6 8.3 12.2 11.6
Turkey 10.8 11.6 12.3 10.3 12.2
Uganda 11.2 11.8 13.3 12.9 12.9
Syrian Arab Republic 13.4 11.8 10.6 10.8 10.6
Philippines 11.4 11.9 13.2 13.3 12.2
Azerbaijan 12.8 12.0 12.6 15.2 15.6
Togo 12.1 12.0 10.3 10.9 9.7
Ghana 12.1 12.0 12.4 10.3 10.8
Bulgaria 16.7 12.2 11.6 14.7 16.9
Mexico 13.2 12.5 12.1 11.6 11.4
Mongolia 11.1 12.6 12.2 15.6 14.6
Pakistan 11.7 12.6 11.9 11.3 10.4
Trinidad and Tobago 11.9 12.7 11.6 11.8 10.9
Uruguay 11.8 12.8 11.0 10.9 12.2
Congo, Rep. 15.7 12.8 20.9 24.2 15.1
Central African Republic 14.9 12.9 11.9 11.5 17.0
Kazakhstan 13.6 12.9 12.4 10.8 11.5
Barbados 12.1 13.0 12.7 13.2 12.7
Romania 13.7 13.1 12.3 7.1 5.7
Bolivia 13.6 13.3 13.9 14.2 14.8
Jamaica 11.1 13.4 15.2 14.8 13.7
Costa Rica 13.5 13.4 13.1 13.0 12.5
Panama 15.1 13.5 12.5 12.7 13.0
Benin 14.4 13.5 13.2 13.1 13.0
Senegal 13.3 13.8 13.4 12.8 13.3
Malawi 21.0 14.0 17.5 14.7 13.4
China 13.8 14.0 14.2 14.6 15.3
Yemen, Rep. 14.4 14.0 15.6 16.3 14.8
Belize 14.3 14.1 14.5 14.3 13.5
Iran, Islamic Rep. 16.0 14.2 13.1 14.3 12.8
Puerto Rico 13.9 14.3 14.3 13.1 13.0
Bahamas, The 13.9 14.3 11.7 11.1 10.7
Mauritius 14.2 14.3 14.1 13.7 14.3
Lebanon 12.4 14.4 17.0 16.7 16.9
United States 14.9 14.5 14.2 14.0 14.1
Kenya 14.8 15.2 15.5 16.2 15.8
Cyprus 13.5 15.4 16.8 16.6 17.4
Japan 15.2 15.4 15.4 15.9 16.5
Luxembourg 15.1 15.5 15.8 15.0 14.7
Tunisia 16.3 15.6 16.3 16.4 16.3
St. Lucia 15.1 15.6 17.4 17.7 17.7
Algeria 16.8 15.8 16.5 17.8 16.8
Maldives 16.8 15.9 17.7 18.3 20.6
Fiji 16.1 15.9 16.8 17.4 15.9
Guyana 15.0 16.2 17.5 18.4 19.0
Grenada 16.6 16.4 16.7 16.4 14.7
Ireland 17.3 16.6 16.1 15.3 14.8
Tajikistan 15.8 16.8 16.5 9.5 9.9
Zimbabwe 18.0 16.9 16.3 15.8 17.8
New Zealand 17.2 17.0 17.8 17.7 18.0
Greece 17.4 17.2 17.2 17.0 17.1
Morocco 19.1 17.2 17.9 16.7 18.0
Swaziland 15.4 17.2 20.7 20.7 19.7
Spain 17.7 17.5 17.1 16.9 16.8
United Kingdom 18.0 17.6 17.0 16.8 17.4
Tonga 16.8 17.6 19.1 18.5 18.8
Italy 17.5 17.7 17.8 17.7 17.7
Portugal 17.6 17.8 17.7 18.0 18.2
Australia 17.9 17.8 17.5 17.5 17.8
Slovenia 18.0 17.8 17.7 17.7 17.9
Macedonia, FYR 18.6 18.1 19.7 20.3 20.6
Equatorial Guinea 18.3 18.5 12.9 21.7 10.2
Colombia 15.2 18.5 20.4 20.8 22.7
Kyrgyz Republic 19.5 18.5 17.3 17.9 19.1
Comoros 22.3 19.0 17.6 15.7 14.7
Poland 19.5 19.0 18.5 18.0 18.1
South Africa 18.3 19.1 19.2 18.8 18.4
Serbia 17.9 19.1 21.7 19.6 18.8
Czech Republic 19.9 19.3 20.0 19.0 19.9
Austria 19.3 19.3 19.4 19.3 19.6
Germany 19.2 19.5 19.1 18.9 19.0
Russian Federation 19.1 19.5 21.1 18.7 14.6
Papua New Guinea 17.1 19.9 19.3 18.1 16.9
St. Kitts and Nevis 20.3 19.9 19.3 19.1 21.2
Malta 18.6 20.0 19.4 19.4 18.8
Burundi 19.1 20.0 16.8 17.1 18.2
Brazil 21.0 20.1 19.9 20.6 20.3
Dominica 20.4 20.2 21.6 21.9 22.0
Bahrain 20.8 20.2 19.5 20.8 20.8
French Polynesia 20.0 20.3 20.4 22.0 22.4
Belarus 20.6 20.6 20.3 19.9 19.5
Bhutan 11.9 20.8 21.9 19.5 18.1
Canada 21.7 20.9 20.0 20.0 19.3
Norway 21.6 20.9 20.6 22.0 21.6
Iceland 21.2 21.1 20.8 21.1 22.0
Antigua and Barbuda 21.7 21.1 20.3 21.8 22.5
Lithuania 20.8 21.4 22.1 23.9 22.0
Netherlands 22.5 21.5 21.0 20.8 20.6
Belgium 21.2 21.6 21.0 20.9 21.1
Latvia 24.4 21.6 20.8 23.5 22.7
Hungary 23.0 21.7 21.3 20.9 21.2
Ukraine 21.3 21.8 27.4 24.6 19.8
West Bank and Gaza 18.4 21.8 22.1 22.3 23.4
Uzbekistan 22.3 22.1 20.5 20.5 20.6
Finland 21.9 22.2 21.4 20.6 20.3
Estonia 24.7 22.4 20.2 20.1 21.3
Slovak Republic 20.3 22.5 20.5 21.1 19.3
Croatia 24.9 22.5 21.7 22.7 23.5
France 22.9 23.2 23.1 22.4 22.4
Oman 25.1 23.7 23.2 25.9 23.8
Libya 22.3 23.8 23.6 26.2 21.9
Denmark 24.1 24.1 23.6 24.1 24.4
Burkina Faso 25.2 24.4 23.7 22.3 17.8
Saudi Arabia 23.6 24.5 26.2 28.4 25.5
Jordan 23.6 24.5 25.6 24.4 24.0
Namibia 25.1 25.0 25.0 24.5 25.1
Brunei Darussalam 26.8 25.2 25.2 29.9 28.6
Sweden 25.5 25.9 25.4 25.5 25.4
Botswana 30.1 26.2 28.2 30.1 27.4
Aruba 21.1 26.2 23.9 22.6 23.3
Cuba 24.4 26.6 26.8 27.7 28.9
Israel 26.6 27.0 26.7 26.2 25.7
Moldova 27.1 27.1 18.4 14.0 10.4
Kuwait 32.2 27.3 26.6 30.5 26.9
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 28.3 28.5 19.0 18.3 18.6
Vanuatu 26.4 28.7 20.8 20.2 21.6
Suriname 25.3 29.0 27.6 38.8 27.0
Seychelles 27.5 29.4 29.5 31.2 26.9
Djibouti 34.9 30.1 30.6 26.3 29.5
Lesotho 32.9 31.3 33.2 38.4 36.3
Qatar 31.9 33.0 29.8 31.6 25.7
Eritrea 43.9 38.7 29.9 52.3 69.5
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Turks and Caicos Islands
Faeroe Islands
Liechtenstein
South Sudan
San Marino
Lao PDR
Somalia
Marshall Islands
Cayman Islands
Solomon Islands 26.2 20.8 22.5
Afghanistan
Northern Mariana Islands
Andorra
Myanmar
Samoa
Guam
Liberia
Timor-Leste
Sao Tome and Principe
Kiribati
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Greenland
Isle of Man
Palau
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Tuvalu
Angola
Curacao
United Arab Emirates
Kosovo
Iraq
Cabo Verde
Montenegro
New Caledonia
Bermuda
American Samoa
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Monaco
St. Martin (French part)
Zambia
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)

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