Country name 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Afghanistan
Albania 9.3 9.6 9.5 8.8 18.5
Algeria 19.0 19.4 20.1 18.0 16.1
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola 50.0 50.0 50.0 33.3 33.3
Antigua and Barbuda 18.2 16.6 19.4 19.0 18.0
Argentina 4.7 4.3 4.5 3.1
Armenia 18.3
Aruba
Australia 18.9 18.8 17.9 17.3 17.1
Austria 18.5 18.5 18.3 18.0 17.7
Azerbaijan 17.6
Bahamas, The 12.1 12.0 13.6 12.9
Bahrain 27.2 24.4 24.4 24.6 24.2
Bangladesh 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.1
Barbados 10.0 9.7 9.8 10.1 11.4
Belarus 23.8
Belgium 22.5 22.3 21.0 20.3 20.1
Belize 20.5 17.9 16.6 15.2 12.9
Benin 15.3 15.5 13.2 11.1 17.6
Bermuda
Bhutan 18.6 14.0 12.6 19.6 14.9
Bolivia 9.4 11.1 11.4 11.9 11.8
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana 24.0 26.9 23.9 22.7 24.1
Brazil 10.7 12.2 12.6 15.5 19.3
Brunei Darussalam 24.3 22.0
Bulgaria 16.9 16.9 16.3 16.5 18.2
Burkina Faso 19.0 19.9 20.0 20.1 21.1
Burundi 9.8 9.7 10.7 10.2 10.8
Cabo Verde
Cambodia
Cameroon 11.3 12.2 10.7 10.8 12.8
Canada 21.9 21.2 21.1 21.4 22.6
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic 15.6 17.5 16.1 15.8 15.4
Chad 13.9 15.8 12.7 15.0 10.0
Chile 12.6 10.9 10.5 10.3 10.0
China 14.7 13.9 13.1 13.8 14.1
Colombia 9.8 8.7 8.6 9.2 9.4
Comoros 27.6 27.3 27.1 27.6 24.5
Congo, Dem. Rep. 8.0 9.9 12.7 10.1 11.5
Congo, Rep. 25.0 20.6 21.0 19.5 19.6
Costa Rica 13.0 12.2 12.5 13.6 14.7
Cote d'Ivoire 15.1 16.3 17.1 18.3 16.8
Croatia
Cuba 32.1 32.0 31.8 31.7 31.0
Curacao
Cyprus 14.1 16.6 16.7 16.0 17.3
Czech Republic 21.5
Denmark 23.0 24.2 24.6 24.3 24.0
Djibouti 31.5
Dominica 20.5 20.0 19.3 20.9 20.5
Dominican Republic 7.1 5.8 5.6 5.6 4.3
Ecuador 15.6 15.3 16.3 13.7 12.3
Egypt, Arab Rep. 16.5 14.3 13.9 12.6 11.3
El Salvador 14.2 13.7 12.7 12.2 9.9
Equatorial Guinea 18.7 15.1 20.5 16.6 16.3
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Faroe Islands
Fiji 17.3 17.4 14.4 17.3 17.5
Finland 20.0 20.3 19.6 19.5 20.9
France 22.1 21.9 21.5 20.9 21.0
French Polynesia
Gabon 25.8 24.6 19.8 14.2 13.4
Gambia, The 18.4 21.7 17.8 14.4 13.7
Georgia 13.1 13.4 13.6 11.8 10.0
Germany 20.3 20.5 20.3 19.3 19.0
Ghana 11.1 10.6 9.7 9.8 9.3
Greece 18.3 18.6 16.4 17.4 17.5
Greenland
Grenada 18.6 20.4 18.9 22.4 21.6
Guam
Guatemala 7.1 7.9 8.0 7.9 6.6
Guinea 11.4 11.9 11.2 11.7 11.0
Guinea-Bissau 13.2 10.7 9.6 11.2 10.3
Guyana 31.5 27.4 28.1 16.5 13.6
Haiti
Honduras 14.3 14.2 14.1 14.3 12.9
Hong Kong SAR, China 7.0 6.3 6.1 6.3 6.8
Hungary
Iceland 18.0 18.8 19.8 19.2 19.0
India 12.1 12.5 12.2 12.2 11.9
Indonesia 11.0 9.4 8.5 8.7 8.8
Iran, Islamic Rep. 15.2 14.4 15.0 12.0 10.8
Iraq 35.9 32.2 32.2 29.4 11.0
Ireland 20.9 19.7 18.0 16.7 17.2
Isle of Man
Israel 30.9 34.0 31.6 29.4 30.0
Italy 18.0 18.8 19.2 19.0 19.7
Jamaica 14.3 13.8 14.4 12.9 13.0
Japan 13.9 13.9 13.5 13.4 13.3
Jordan 25.3 25.7 25.7 25.5 24.0
Kazakhstan
Kenya 18.3 18.6 18.4 18.1 18.6
Kiribati 54.0 50.7 45.9 53.2 52.8
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.
Korea, Rep. 10.2 9.9 10.0 10.7 10.9
Kuwait 27.0 22.0 26.3 25.4 38.7
Kyrgyz Republic 22.8 22.0 19.7 25.0
Lao PDR 8.6 8.3 10.9
Latvia
Lebanon 18.1 24.6
Lesotho 16.7 31.0 33.1 28.6 25.6
Liberia 22.0
Libya 24.4
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg 14.9 15.7 14.9 14.6 14.9
Macao SAR, China 7.5 7.3 8.0 9.1 9.9
Macedonia, FYR 19.0
Madagascar 8.8 9.1 8.1 8.8 8.0
Malawi 19.7 19.1 15.7 16.3 15.1
Malaysia 16.7 14.9 14.2 14.1 13.8
Maldives
Mali 18.3 17.2 17.7 17.0 17.0
Malta 16.1 16.5 16.0 16.5 16.2
Marshall Islands
Mauritania 23.6 24.4 24.3 25.3 25.9
Mauritius 10.5 11.7 12.7 12.2 13.6
Mexico 9.1 8.8 8.4 8.3 8.4
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia 26.2 26.3 25.7 23.2 24.4
Montenegro
Morocco 18.1 19.1 18.1 17.8 16.8
Mozambique 13.2 11.1 11.9 13.1 13.5
Myanmar
Namibia 22.9 24.5 23.3 21.9 23.3
Nepal 9.1 9.1 9.0 10.0 8.7
Netherlands 22.2 23.1 22.6 21.8 21.6
New Caledonia 40.7 9.4
New Zealand 17.7 17.5 17.6 17.8 18.4
Nicaragua 35.4 34.2 32.2 26.7 43.5
Niger 11.3 11.2 15.5 15.7 16.8
Nigeria 12.6 7.2 7.6 5.4 5.0
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway 19.0 20.0 19.9 20.0 20.3
Oman 33.2 30.4 29.6 27.1 22.3
Pakistan 12.8 13.5 15.5 16.8 15.1
Palau
Panama 20.5 22.0 20.9 19.3 18.1
Papua New Guinea 23.0 22.4 20.9 24.5 24.8
Paraguay
Peru 12.8 12.5 8.7 8.8 7.5
Philippines 8.0 8.4 9.0 9.5 10.1
Poland 21.7
Portugal 13.4 13.3 13.8 14.5 15.3
Puerto Rico 14.7 14.4 14.2 14.4 14.5
Qatar
Romania 13.3
Russian Federation 20.1 20.8
Rwanda 11.9 13.5 13.5 12.7 10.1
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia 34.7 35.2 30.9 33.6 29.2
Senegal 17.6 17.5 18.1 17.8 18.4
Serbia
Seychelles 38.8 34.4 31.8 33.3 27.7
Sierra Leone 6.3 9.4 6.7 7.3 7.8
Singapore 12.7 11.5 9.9 9.7 9.5
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Slovak Republic 22.4
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa 18.8 19.2 18.5 19.2 19.7
South Sudan
Spain 15.0 15.5 15.4 15.9 16.3
Sri Lanka 10.3 9.9 9.8 10.5 9.8
St. Kitts and Nevis 10.9 10.5 9.9 10.0 10.0
St. Lucia 20.0 19.2 16.9 17.9 14.7
St. Martin (French part)
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 15.6 16.1 14.8 15.9 14.4
Sudan 13.8 12.8 7.0 7.0 5.8
Suriname 36.8 37.6 36.5 30.0 30.0
Swaziland 20.1 19.4 17.5 17.4 14.3
Sweden 25.3 24.6 23.9 24.2 25.3
Switzerland 10.2 10.1 10.3 10.7 10.9
Syrian Arab Republic 21.5 18.0 13.2 16.0 14.3
Tajikistan 8.5 8.7 8.0 8.7 8.7
Tanzania 17.8
Thailand 12.8 11.3 10.0 9.5 9.4
Timor-Leste
Togo 17.6 18.0 13.5 13.8 14.2
Tonga 15.8 16.7 16.3 17.4 19.1
Trinidad and Tobago 21.8 19.9 19.8 16.9 16.2
Tunisia 17.8 16.9 16.6 17.3 16.4
Turkey 7.6 7.8 7.6 9.3 11.0
Turkmenistan 21.3 21.6 22.5 23.0
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu
Uganda 9.0 8.0 8.1 7.0 7.5
Ukraine 17.3 16.5
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom 19.8 19.1 18.3 17.9 18.1
United States 16.0 15.9 15.6 15.6 15.9
Uruguay 14.3 13.2 12.2 12.3 12.1
Uzbekistan 1.4 2.2 3.4 25.4
Vanuatu 37.2 35.8 34.2 30.3 29.4
Venezuela, RB 11.1 10.5 10.5 9.6 8.4
Vietnam 7.8 12.3
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
West Bank and Gaza
Yemen, Rep. 15.5
Zambia
Zimbabwe 20.6 23.4 27.5 18.7 19.4

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