WDI 2016 Maps

In the World Development Indicators database (and most other time series datasets), all 188 World Bank member countries, plus 26 other economies with populations of more than 30,000, are classified so that data users can aggregate, group, and compare statistical data of interest. Groupings are primarily based on income and on the regions used for administrative purposes by the World Bank.

For the current 2016 fiscal year, low-income economies are defined as those with a GNI per capita, calculated using the World Bank Atlas method, of $1,045 or less in 2014; lower-middle-income economies are those with a GNI per capita between $1,046 and $4,125; upper-middle-income economies are those with a GNI per capita between $4,126 and $12,735; high-income economies are those with a GNI per capita of $12,736 or more. Please click here for more information about World Bank country groups.

Please click here for more information about World Bank country groups.

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With the latest publication of the World Development Indicators 2016 you will find a set of maps that highlight a key indicator for each chapter.


The poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day is the share of the population living on less than $1.90 a day in 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. It is also referred to as the extreme poverty rate. The PPP 2011 $1.90 a day poverty line is the average poverty line of the 15 poorest countries in the world, estimated from household surveys conducted by national statistical offices or by private agencies under the supervision of government or international agencies. Income and consumption data used for estimating poverty are also collected from household surveys. The 2012 estimates are the latest comprehensive update and draw on more than 2 million randomly sampled households, representing 87 percent of the population in 131 low- and middle-income countries (as defined in 1990). This map shows the country-level poverty estimates used to generate the 2012 regional and global poverty estimates. Because 2011 PPPs for Bangladesh, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Jordan require further investigation, estimates for those countries are based on the 2005 PPP $1.25 a day poverty line.

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The primary completion rate is the proportion of new entrants in the last grade of primary education among the total population at the entrance age for the last grade of primary education. The rate can exceed 100 percent because new entrants may include overage and underage children. It reflects both the coverage of the education system and the educational attainment of students. Although the rate does not always ensure that expected learning outcomes occur, since some students finish school without acquiring adequate literacy and numeracy skills, it is a good indicator of the quality and efficiency of the school system. Worldwide, the primary completion rate reached 92 percent in 2013. However, progress has been stagnant in recent years, and there are large regional differences in achievement. Many children drop out of school before completion because of cost, distance, physical danger, and failure to advance.

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Global demand for energy is surging. The share of energy production from alternative sources has increased slightly since 1990, but fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, supplied more than 81 percent of the world's total energy production in 2013. Fossil fuels are the primary source of carbon dioxide emissions, which, along with the other greenhouse gases, are believed to be the principal cause of global climate change. Producing the energy needed for growth while mitigating its effects on the world’s climate is a global challenge. Because commercial energy is widely traded, its production and use need to be distinguished.

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Economic growth reduces poverty. As a result, fastgrowing middle-income economies are closing the income gap with high-income economies. But growth must be sustained over the long term, and gains must be shared to make lasting improvements to the well-being of all people. The 2007 financial crisis spread from high-income to low-income economies in 2008. A year later it became the most severe global recession in 50 years and affected sustained development around the world. Average annual per capita GDP growth in low- and middle-income countries slowed from 5 percent over 2000–09 (the pre-crisis period) to 4.3 percent over 2009–14 (the post-crisis period), which was still faster than in high-income countries. High-income countries grew an average of 1.2 percent a year after the crisis, down from 1.5 percent before the crisis. The low- and middleincome countries in Middle East and North Africa saw the largest drop: Average annual per capita GDP growth fell 3.4 percentage points, from 3.1 percent in the pre-crisis period to –0.3 percent in the postcrisis period.

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The digital and information revolution has changed the way the world learns, communicates, does business, and treats illnesses. Information and communication technologies offer vast opportunities for progress in all walks of life in all countries— opportunities for economic growth, improved health, better service delivery, learning through distance education, and social and cultural advances. The Internet delivers information to schools and hospitals, improves public and private services, and increases productivity and participation. Through mobile phones, Internet access is expanding in low- and middle-income countries. The mobility, ease of use, flexible deployment, and declining rollout costs of wireless technologies enable mobile communications to reach rural populations. According to the International Telecommunication Union, by the end of 2015 the number of Internet users worldwide reached 3.2 billion.

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Over the past decade flows of foreign direct investment (FDI) to low- and middle-income economies have increased substantially. It has long been recognized that FDI flows can carry the benefits of knowledge and technology transfer to domestic firms and the labor force, productivity spillover, enhanced competition, and improved access for exports abroad. Moreover, they are the preferred source of capital for financing a current account deficit because FDI is non-debt-creating. Global inflows of FDI declined 20 percent in 2014, to $1.6 trillion, due mainly to a 30 percent decrease into high-income economies. Low- and middle-income economies continued to prove more resilient, with FDI inflows decreasing only 1.4 percent.

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